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Chemistry 1

Chapter 1, 2 and part of 3

Scientific Method Observation, Hypothesis, Law, Theory, Experiment.
Observations (data) Qualitative, Quantitative.
Qualitative Non-numerical, Observations via the 5 senses.
Quantitative Numerical Data.
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass Measurable quantity of matter.
Weight Is a force and depends on gravity. [wt=m*a]
States of matter -"Macroscopic" Solid, Liguid, Gas.
Solid rigid; fixed volume; fixed shape
Liquid fluid; fixed volume; NO fixed shape.
Gas (most random state) fluid; NO fixed volume; NO fixed shape.
Solid Matter Atoms and Molecules
Liquid Matter Atoms and Molecules leave space to take shape.
Gaseous Matter compressible
Homogenous Mixture Means a solution
Common Physical Properties (intensive properties) Melting point, Boiling point, Solubility, Density, Color , Odor, Viscosity(ability to pour) Conductivity(heat & electrical) Magnetic.
Physical change Pure Substance still exists in its same chemical composition, and be recovered by a physical process.
Chemical change change subscript; pure substance changed to another pure substance. Chemical composition has changed.
Nuclear process Ability to change one element (atom) into another element(atom).
Physical vs Chemical Water freezes at 0 degrees C. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen. Bromine is an orange liquid. Styrofoam floats on water. Vinegar with baking soda gives off gas. Heating water causes it to boil.
Matter properties Extensive properties, Intensive properties
Intensive Properties (characteristic) do not depend on amount of substance. Physical and chemical properties
Extensive Properties Amount of Substance-mass, volume, length.
Kinetic Energy energy of motion
Potential Energy stored energy
Law Conservation of Energy energy is neither created nor destroyed, just converted into different forms.
Kilogram Kg (Mass)
Meter m (Length)
Second s (Time)
Kelvin K (Temperature)
mole mol (Substance amount)
Common Temperature Scales Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin (absolute temperature scale)
1kg = / 1g = 1000g / 0.001 kg
1 liter =/ 1mL = 1000ml / 0.001 liter
1m = / 1cm= 100cm / 0.01
1us = 0.000001 s
Precision agreement among several measurements (how close is your grouping)
Accuracy agreement of reported value to the accepted value (hitting the bullseye)
Percent Error Simple method to track error. % Error=[error range] / accepted value x 100.
Significant figures reflect on the preciseness (certainty) of the measurement. (all recorded digits from a measurement are significant)
Measurements have uncertainty in the last recorded digit.
Calculators create digit proliferation. (calculations must reflect the uncertainty of the measurements)
Density = Mass / Volume, is a ratio of units.
When two or more insoluble substances are mixed - the less dense substance will rise above the more dense substance.
Law of multiple proportions Two different compounds containing the same two elements (A&B), the masses of "B" that commbine with 1 gram of "A" are related by a small whole number ratio.
Matter is made up of atoms, Matter contains positive(protons & negative electron) particles. Some atoms are radioactive.
Theory of atomic structure Atom is mostly empty space. Nucleus contains (+) charge (protons)of an atom. N. also contains an equally massive neutral particle (neutron); the nucleus contains essentially all the mass of the atom. Electrons, (-) charge, occupy the remaining volume of t
Isotopes Atoms (elements) that have the same atomic number as (protons) but has a different atomic mass (neutrons). Isotopes occur in nature at different abundance percentages.
Any element above 83 is always radioactive.
Group IA Alkali metals
Group IIA Alkaline earth metals
Group VIIIA Noble gases
Metal properties Shiny Luster, conductors of electricity and heat, Ductile(to a wire), Malleable(shape it), Form alloys-solid solutions.
Nonmetal properties Generally dull appearance, Insulators, Brittle.
Metalloids Behave mostly as nonmetals except for the ability to partially conduct electricity (semi-conductors) "Borderline" elements
Family (Group) Trends Metals become more reactive going down their family. Non-metals become more reactive going up their family.
Ionic Compounds Electrostatic bond- opposite charges attract.
Mole - Chemistry- 1) a collection of atoms or molecules. (nano) 2) ids related to the molar mass of the element or compound in grams.
Covalent compounds Non-metal, non-metal.
Binary compounds that combine with metal- include the ide like bromide or oxide.