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Clinical Chemistry I

formulas

QuestionAnswer
What is the equation for LDL?Can't calculate over what value? total-(HDL+triglycerides/5)Triglycerides/5=VLDLCannot calculat if >400mg/dl
Oligosaccharids-how many sugar units?Chpt.14 3-10 sugar units
define stereochemistrychpt.14 spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules
define stereoisomerschpt 14 same order and types of bonds but different spatial arrangements and diff. properties
name 2 major hormones that control glucose? clue: they oppose each otherchpt 14 Insulin and glucogon
Insulin inhibits what?chpt 14 inhibits glycogenolysis, decreases glucose levels (beta cells of islets/angerhans)
glucagon increases what?chpt. 14 alpha cells of islet that increases glyogenolysis
epinephrine-where is it made? and what does it do/chpt 14 made in adrenal medullaincreases glucose, inhibits insulin secretion, increases glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Released during stress increase.
hyperglycemia does what?chpt 14 increased in plasma glucose levels.increases glucose in plasma and urine. Increases urine specifice gravity, ketones in serum and urine. Decreases blood and urine pH(acidosis) and causes electrolyte imbalances
glycogenesis converts what to what?chpt 14 hint:(g-->g:new) converts glucose to glycogen for storage
what is gluconeogenesis? GIVE 3 EXAMPLESchpt 14 clue(SUGAR/NEW/CREATION) formation of glucose from non carbohydratesie: 1.amino acids 2.glycerol 3. lactate
what is glycogenolysis?Chpt 14 hint (g-->l/p) conversion of glucose to lactate, pyruvate acid
what is lipogenesis?chot 14 hint (fat/form into new) conversion of carbs into fatty acids
what is lipolysis?chpt 14 decopmposition of fat
what are monosacchrides?Chpt 14 ex:(g f g) singer sugar unitex. glucose frucose galatose
what are disaccharides?
Oligosaccharids-how many sugar units?Chpt.14 3-10 sugar units
define stereochemistrychpt.14 spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules
define stereoisomers.chpt 14 same order and types of bonds but different spatial arrangements and diff. properties
name 2 major hormones that control glucose? clue: they oppose each other. chpt 14 Insulin and glucogon
Insulin inhibits what?chpt 14 inhibits glycogenolysis, decreases glucose levels (beta cells of islets/angerhans)
glucagon increases what?chpt. 14 alpha cells of islet taht increases glyogenolysis
epinephrine-where is it made? and what does it do/chpt 14 made in adrenal medullaincreases glucose, inhibits insulin secretion, increases glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Released during stress increase.
hyperglycemia does what?chpt 14 increased in plasma glucose levels.increases glucose in plasma and urine. Increases urine specifice gravity, ketones in serum and urine. Decreases blood and urine pH(acidosis) and causes electrolyte imbalances
glycogenesis converts what to what?chpt 14 hint:(g-->g:new) converts glucose to glycogen for storage
what is gluconeogenesis? GIVE 3 EXAMPLESchpt 14 clue(SUGAR/NEW/CREATION) formation of glucose from non carbohydratesie: 1.amino acids 2.glycerol 3. lactate
what is glycogenolysis?Chpt 14 hint (g-->l/p) conversion of glucose to lactate, pyruvate acid
what is lipogenesis?chot 14 hint (fat/form into new) conversion of carbs into fatty acids
what is lipolysis?chpt 14 decopmposition of fat
what are monosacchrides?Chpt 14 ex:(g f g) singer sugar unitex. glucose frucose galatose
what are disaccharides?chpt. 14. list 3 examples two sugar units.ex.: maltose lactose sucrose
anion gap equation
CAP College of American Pathologists
JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations
NAACLS National Accredting afency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences
CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
what does each color stand for on a safety diamond label? red-flammability, yellow-reactivity, blue-health and white-radioactive or water reactive
which is more hazardous 1 or 4 on the 4 has the greater hazard 1 or 0 os the least
class A fire extinguishers are used on what types of fires? Ordinary combustibles ie: wood, paper, cloth
class B fire extinguishers are used on what types of fires? flammable liquids
class C fire extinguishers are used on what types of fires? electrical
class D fire extinguishers are used on what types of fires? flammable metals
P A S S stands for Pull Aim Squeeze and Sweep
R A C E stands for rescue, alarm, confine and extinguish
Buffer equation pH= pK + log (base)/(acid)
what is the pK at body temp.? 6.1
what is the ratio of HCO3 to H2CO3 20:1--->will help keep pH in range
What important role does a phosphate buffering system have in urine? it neutralizes hydrogen ions in the urine filtrate and controls acidity
what are the compensation mechanisms of the body? hyperventilation-->removes CO2 hyPOventilation-->pH will increase increased HCO3 reabsorption-->due to chloride loss Decrease HCO3--> caused by diuretics
what are the 4 main acid base disorders metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis and respiratory alkalosis
in what way will the lungs compensate for metabolic acidosis hyperventilation-->EXCRETE CO2
in what way will the kidneys compensate for metabolic acidosis increase urine acidity and NH3
in what way will the lungs compensate for metabolic alkalosis hyPOventilation-->retain CO2
is it possible for the kidneys to compensate for metabolic alkalosis? no
name a compensation the lungs will provide for respiratory alkalosis hyperventilation-->excrete CO2
how will the kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis? excretion of HCO3; decreased H+ secretion
which is a "primary bicarbonate deficit"? metabolic acidosis or alkalosis metabolic acidosis
which is a primary bicarbonate excess metabolic acidosis or alkalosis metabolic alkalosis
what is respiratory acidosis an accumulation
another name for aspirin poisoning? Salicylate poisoning
Created by: nizhoni