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Biology Definitions

building blocks of matter (contain neutrons protons, and electrons) atoms
center of an atom (contains protons and neutrons) nucleus
2 or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons isotopes
pure substance with unique properties, formed when 2 or more different elements combine compound
compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds molecule
type of bond formed when an atom SHARE electrons covalent bond
atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons ion
electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms ionic bond
combination of 2 or more different substances in which substances keeps its individual characteristics mixture
homogenous mixture formed when a substance is dissolved into another substance solution
molecule with oppositely charged regions polar molecule
weak electrostatic bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges between a hydrogen atom and oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen hydrogen bond
substance that releases H+ when dissolved in water (pH < 7) acid
substance that releases OH- when dissolved in water base
have same chemical formula but different structures isomer
large molecule formed from smaller repeating units of identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds polymer
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom carbohydrate
basic unit of a carbohydrate monosaccharide
formed when 2 monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction disaccharide
any class of carbohydrates consisting of a number of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bond polysaccharides
carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units; polysaccharide stored by plants starch
secondary long term energy storage in animal and fungi cells glycogen
cellulose an inert carbohydrate; makes cell wall cellulose
hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen lipid
organic, compound made of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds protein
carbon compound joined by peptide bonds; building blocks of proteins amino acids
bond that holds amino acids together peptide bond
protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering activation energy needed to start the reaction enzyme
complex macromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information nucleic acid
subunit of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base nucleotides
main component of chromosomes; transfers genetic information DNA
any various nucleic acid that contains ribose and uracil as structural components RNA
all of the chemical reactions that take place in an organism metabolism
Created by: nomad95