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psych chapter 1

Unlike experiments, surveys show: the relationship between variables.
Why might there be some ethical concerns about naturalistic observation? People might be harmed as a result of their being observed.
As a college student you will probably conduct what kind of research? Archival research.
Scientists are obligated to publish their results in books, journals, internet, press, or any of the above? Any of the above.
To say that a result is significant is to say that it is: Not due to chance.
You should read a book when: You are unfamiliar with the subject.
Why should scientists do experiments? To demonstrated causation.
Why can't theories be tested? They apply to too many situations.
Science exists to: Falsify ideas.
Control is problematic because it limits the: Generalizability of a result.
What differentiates science from all other ways of knowing? Scientists attempt to show that we do not understand things.
Scientists call their explanations: Theories.
How many hypotheses can be derived from a single theory? An infinite amount.
How many hypotheses must be tested before a theory can be considered proven? An infinite number.
Creationism and intelligent designs are not scientific because: They are not testable.
What enables predictions but does not test them? Supernatural explanations.
What is wrong with intuition as a way of knowing. Nothing.
Scientific explanations do not: Explain why something occurred.
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of Prediction.
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their culture
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.
What is most likely to inhibit critical thinking? Overconfidence
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use correlational measures.
Statistics are tools that help us to avoid illusory correlations.
On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin’s advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of 6.
Daniel and Donald are identical twinsseparated at birth.When they were finally reunited for the first time the men were amazed to discover that they had so much in common. The men would be best advised to recognize the danger of perceiving order in random events.
To study the effects of social interaction on problem solving some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; others were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group. control.
The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes.
The first major issue that emerges in debates over experimenting on animals centers around the ethics of placing the well-being of humans above that of animals.
Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society urge psychological investigators to ensure that research participants give informed consent before participating in the research.
The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by hindsight bias.
Some animal protection organizations want to replace the use of animals in research involving ________ with research involving ________. experimentation; naturalistic observation
An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates an operational definition.
After carefully studying how three single parents dealt with the loss of their jobs, Dr. Phong began to overestimate the national rate of unemployment. In this instance, Dr. Phong should be warned that ________ may be misleading. case studies
Seven members of a Girl Scout troop report the following individual earnings from their sale of candy: $4, $1, $7, $6, $8, $2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings the mean is less than the mode and less than the median.
The children in Mrs. Shashoua's neighborhood make fun of her limp. She concludes that today's kids are typically cruel and insensitive. Mrs. Shashoua ought to remind herself that reasonable generalizations depend on observing representative samples.
Which of the following might be a functionalist theory? People behave in ways that helps them get things they need or want.
Some don't drink alchohol, others consume three beers. They are then placed behind the wheel of a driving simulator and their actions monitored. This is done to test the hypothesis that driving skill is reduced by alchohol. This study is an example of: Applied research and an experiment.
Imagine that you have entered the following distribution of scores into the program: 7, 9, 6, 3, 7, 8, 4, 10, 7, 9. The mean of this distribution of scores would be changed the most if a score of ________ was removed from the data set. 3
Two students are conducting a research study on the effects of loud music on college students' hearing. One group is where music is blaring and another group of students in a quiet room. The group in the quiet room is called the ________ group. control.
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?A. –0.50 B. –0.12 C. +0.25 D. –0.99 –0.12
Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion? the survey
Knowing the difference between an experimental group and a control group is most relevant to understanding the nature of independent variables.
Which of the following correlations between annual income and education level would best enable you to predict annual income on the basis of level of education? A. +0.10 B. +0.50 C. +0.05 D. –0.01 +0.50
University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as naturalistic observation.
When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to note the range and size of the scale values.
Six of the children in Mr. Myer's class were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that random sequences of events often don't look random.
Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem? A. +0.60 B. –0.06 C. –0.10 D. +0.01 +0.60
To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a(n) control group.
A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be skewed.
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances? replication
Akira dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Akira concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. Her belief best illustrates an illusory correlation.
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in naturalistic observation.
Hypotheses are best described as predictions.
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by operational definitions.
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between causes and effects.
Which of the following is a hypothesis that might be developed by a functionalist? When looking at a rose, people will notice the color, shape and size of the bloom.
Which of the following is a hypothesis that might be developed by a behaviorist? Having been rewarded for studying, people will study more.
Psychologists study animals because similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior.
In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of extremely high scores? mean
A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between intelligence and academic success.
To better understand how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observes and questions two stroke victims. Which research method is Dr. Mosher using? the case study
Seven members of a boys' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of cookies: $2, $9, $8, $10, $4, $9, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings the median is greater than the mean and less than the mode.
Two students in an art class are at least 20 years older than the others. Which measure of variation of class members' ages is most affected by the ages of these two students? range
Psychological differences between the genders are far outweighed by gender similarities.
Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as hindsight bias.
To study some effects of alcohol consumption, Dr. Chu tested the physical coordination skills of 21-year-old men who had just drunk either 4, 2, or 0 ounces of alcohol. In this study, the independent variable consisted of the amount of alcohol consumed.
To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her school, Ariana sent a survey to every fifteenth person in the registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using random sampling.
As the size of a representative sample increases, the ________ of that sample is most likely to decrease. standard deviation
The most accurate way of assessing the impact of hormone replacement therapy on women's health is by means of experiments
Animal researchers are more likely to support regulations protecting the well-being of cats than the well-being of mice.
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n) population.
The percentage of students whose average grades fall into various performance levels could be represented on a bar graph.
Approximately 68 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean. 1
Students who have no exams for the next two weeks are compared with those who are facing an exam tomorrow. They do not know that they are being observed in this Naturalistic observation of interest to counseling psychologists.
Which of the following might be a structuralist theory? People will notice many elements of things presented to them.
Score on Test A Score on Test B Tino 3 7 Jordan 4 10 Joshua 6 10 Jill 2 6 The correlation coefficient between these two sets of test scores would increase if you did not include the sco Jordan.
When psychologists conduct research, the small group they test is the ________ and the larger group to which the results are applied is the ________. sample; population
In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a placebo
The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by hindsight bias.
In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug for treating diabetes, research participants who receive a placebo have been assigned to the ________ group. control
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the mode
Professor O'Brian has used correlational evidence to reach a potentially incorrect conclusion about a cause-effect relationship. Questioning the validity of drawing this conclusion from the evidence best illustrates critical thinking.
Alexandra is told the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery is bad for self-esteem. Neither are surprised. This best illustrates the power of hindsight bias.
In a test of the effects of cigarette smoking on physical health and development, groups of monkeys were raised in either a smoke-free or smokeinfested environment. Monkeys in the smoke-infested environment were assigned to the _______ group. experimental
A statement describing how a researcher manipulates an independent variable is known as a(n) operational definition.
Which measure of variation is affected most by a few extreme scores? range
The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors. positive expectations
The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the mean
In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex? The probability is the same at all three hospitals.
Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations? random sampling
To assess the influence of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable was interpersonal attraction.
Which of the following might be a functionalist theory? People behave in ways that helps them get things they need or want.
Students who have no exams for the next two weeks are compared with those who are facing an exam tomorrow. They do not know that they are being observed in this Naturalistic observation of interest to counseling psychologists.
Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness? the experiment.
The transmission of political practices and religious customs from one generation to the next best illustrates the importance of culture.
Rodesia insists that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of skepticism.
To assess the effectiveness of flu vaccine for county residents, Mr. Carlson wants to administer vaccine injections to all county residents rather than give half of them a placebo injection. Mr. Carlson is most clearly underestimating the importance of creating a control group.
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for discerning human similarities and differences.
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use correlational measures.
Which research method assesses how well one variable predicts another without specifying a cause and effect relationship between the variables? the correlational method
The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the mean.
Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will bring bad luck. Felicia's belief best illustrates an illusory correlation.
When provided with the unscrambled solutions to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams. This best illustrates overconfidence.
A survey showed that kids with high self-esteem picture God as kind and loving, kids with lower self-esteem tend to see God as angry. The researchers thought that the kids's self-esteem had influenced their views of God. This illustrates assuming that association proves causation.
Incorrectly interpreting correlation as evidence of causation is best avoided by making use of experiments
A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the frequency of scores at each level of some measure.
A statement describing how a researcher manipulates an independent variable is known as a(n) operational definition.
Students are watched in a bar. How much they drink and how much they smile is recorded. The hypothesis being tested is that the amount of alcohol consumed will be related to the number of times that they smile in order to learn while people smile. Basic research and a correlational study.
To ensure that the participants' and researchers' expectations do not influence the outcome of an experiment, the psychologist should apply the double-blind procedure.
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