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chapter 14 chemistry

chapter 14

definition of energy ability to do work
us has __% of people in the world and we use __% of worlds energy 5, 25
__ are number one use of energy in the us utilities 33%
most energy available to us comes from sun...a nuclear reactor
the SI unit of energy is the joule (J)
the SI unit of power is the watt (W)
one watt in relevance to joules 1 watt is 1 joule per second J/s W=1j/s
W= 1j/s
the sun is a ___ reactor nuclear fusion
the sun steadily converts hydrogen to helium
power output of the sun 4*10^26
earth receives __ amount of power from the sun 1.73*10^17W (equal to output of 115 million nuclear power plants
two forms of energy kinetic and potential
energy due to position or arrangement potential
examples of potential energy water at the top of a dam, chil atom sliding board, fuel, food, nuclear energy, compressed spring
four main types of potential energy stored by position, stored in chemical bonds, sotred in nuclear particles, stored by compression
energy of motion kinetic energy
kinetic energy __ as potential energy __ increase' decreases
examples of kinetic energy rolling freight train, spinning water wheel, moving molecule, nuclear explosion
what happens to energy biosphere receives that isnt used to support life 30% is immediately reflected back into space as short wave radiation
what are the three large uses of energy biosphere receives 50% used to heat the planet, 23% powers the water cycle, most importantly used by plants for photosynthesis
in water cycle radient energy of sun is converted to wat potential energy of water vapor, water droplets, and ice crystals
photosynthesis formula 6CO2+6H2O + energy YIELDS(with chlorophil as catalyst) C6H12O6+6O2
kinetic -molecular theory explains effects of temperatures on the rates of chemical reactions (hotter faster reaction)
4 main factors effecting chemical reactions temperature, concentration of reactants, catalysts, amounts of chemicals
two main units of energy joule and calorie
1cal =__joules 4.184
exothermic reactions chemical reactions resulting in release of heat (burning methane, gas and coal)
endothermic reaction energy is supplied as heat in reaction
energy supplied as heat in a reaction endothermic reaction
examples of endothermic processes melting ice, cooking, photosynthesis,breaking bonds, batery charging, decomposition of HgO, mixing NH4Cl with water, evaporation of CFC
exothermic processes ecamples freezing of water, condensation of water vapor, burning wood, metabolism, making chemical bonds, discharging battery, oxidation of Mg to MGO , mixing CaO with water or (H2SO4), nuclear fission and fusion
energy cannot be created or destroyed (2 names for this law) first law of thermodynamics, law of conservation of every
law of conservation of energy energy can not be created nor destroyed
1st law of thermo dynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed
in relation to energy.. no one has yet been able to make a ____ machine perpetual motion
what would a perpetual motion machine do produce more energy that it consumes
three reasons we always need enegy 1. can be changed from one form to another 2. not all forms are equal 3. high grade forms of enery are constantly being degraded into low grade forms
does energy flow from hot to cold or cold to hot hot to cold
2nd law of thermodynamics energy doesnt flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot one ei. refridgerators use electricity
why do scientists use the word entropy indicate randomness in position or energy of a system
more mixed up a system is the higher its __ entropy
all of our energy comes from fusion reactor the sun!!
endothermic reaction in class combinded what and what happened barium hydroxide and ammonium phiosionate...made cold
exothermic experiment in clas what was involved what happened H2O2 YIELD (need a catalyst) H2O+O2 + energy + added soap to prove that O2 was produced resulted in lots of bubbles
Created by: zielske