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chapter 17 household

chapter 17 household chemicals

soapwarts and soabberries are? cleansing agents from europe and tropical america (respectively)
the leaves of soapwarts and soapberries contain ___ chemical compounds giving them lathery texture saponins
fist detergents saponins
ancient babylonians used what as cleansing agents alkane solution from plant ashes
soap was first mainly used as a medicine
fat + lye= soap
sodium carbonate heated with lime resulted in lye sodium hydroxide
Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2 lye 2NaOH+CaCO
what was heated with what to produce soap sodium hydroxide heated with animal fats or vegetable oils
soap is a ___ of a long chain of ___ salt of a long chain of carboxylic acid
why did some soap mad eby americam pioneers erode the skin becuase it often contained unreacted alkali
how are fats and oils treated in modern comercial soapmaking fats and oils are hydrolyzed with superheated steam and fatty acids are neutralized
potassium soaps compared to sodium soaps poassium soaps are softer than sodium and produce a finer lather
most liquids for hand cleaning contain synthetic detergents
soaps can also be made by reacting fatty acids with ___ ie. shampoos and cosmetics triethanolamine
describe a soap molecules dual nature one end is ionic, polar, and hydrophilic (water attracting).....the rest of the molecule is hydrocarbonlike, nonpolar and hydrophobic (water repelling)
what are the roles of the hydrophilic head and the hydrophobic tail in soaps the hydrophilic head dissolves in water while the hydrophobic tail dissolves in nonpolar substances (oils)
micelle a spherecal collection of mollecules
while soap is working the oil and water form an _____ with soap acting as the ___ agent emulsion, emulsifying agent
surface-active agent (surfactant) any agent including soap that stabalizes the suspension of nonpolar substances in water
a disatvantage of soap is that it doesnt work well in hard water
what is hard water water containing certain metal ions (calcium , magnesium and iron)
what is the purpose of water softeners make water less hard to make soap more effective remove ions of calcium magnesium and iron
what are effective water softeners (3) washing soda, sodium carbonate, trisodium phosphate
what is the purpose of the carbonate ion in the water softener sodium carbonate it makes the water basic, raising the pH of the water, removes incoluble salts
how do water softening tanks soften water have insoluble polymeric materical that attracts and holds calcium magnesium and iron ions to its surface
what are the three main elements that make water hard calcium , magnesium and iron
synthetic detergents are better then soap becuas they.. are resistant to effects of acids and hard water
why was timing important in the development of synthetic detergents soap materials were scarce and expensive during ww2 and so the synthetic soap industry developed rapidly in post war perios
synthetic detergents were made from __products petroleum
ABS detergents were made from 2 main things propylene, benzene and sulfuric acid
in ABS detergents propylene, benzene and sulfuric acid resulted in ___ sulfonic acid
in making ABS detergents sulfonic acid was neutralized with a ___ usually __ with a base usually sodium carbonate
why was ABS banned it was nonbiodegradable, goundwater supply was threatened
what is the main difference between ABS and LAS detergents abs was nonbiodegradable and LAS was biodegradable
LAS have __ chains of __ linear chains of carbon atoms
how do microorganizms get rid of las detergents produce enzymes that can break down the carbon atoms two at a time
why do synthetic detergents work better in acidic and hard water their calcium and magnesium salts are soluble and do not separate out
the main component of laundry detergents is surfactant
what does surfactant stand for surface active agents
sulfactants are generally clasified by the ionic charge borne by the working part of the material
small ion of opposite charge that ionic detergent is always associated with counter ion
are ABS and LAS soaps ionic or anionic surfactants anionic
anionic surfactant soap has a negative charge on the active part
what is the counter ion for most anioic surfactants Na+
nonionic surfactants (3 characteristics )(2main uses) 1. no electrical charge 2. low sudsing 3. resistant to water hardness 1. laundry 2. dishawasher formulations
most widely used nonionic surfactants alcohol ethoxylates
anionic surfactants (5 main uses) ABS, LAS, laundry, hand dishwashing detergents, household cleansers make lots of suds!!
4 surfactants anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric
charge of cationic surfactants positive charge on the active part
what are cationic surfactants not particularly good at being detergents
what are the main uses for cationic surfactants have a germicidal action , used for cleansers, disinfected for dairy ,sanatizing ingredients
most common cationic surfactant quaternary ammonium salts
sometimes cationic surfactants are used with ___ nonionic surfactacts
charges of amphoteric surfactants both positive and negative charge
three main characterisitcs of amphoteric surfactants mildness, sudsing, stability
main uses for amphoteric surfactants(2) shampoos for babies, liquid handwashing soap
most common aphoerics include compouds called betaines
any substance added to a surfactant to increase its detergence is called a builder
what does a builder do when added to a surfactant increase its detergency
main function of builder is to reduce water hardness
what happens in suquestration complex phosphates tie up calcium and magnesium in soluble complexes
thee complex phosphates used in sequestiation and synergistic proccess 1. sodium triphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium citrate
why would states ban detergents with phosphates speeds up the eutrophication of lakes
process of precipitation sodium carbonate and soium silicate act by reacting with the hard water ions to form an insoluble substance
currently a prominant type of builder zeolites
zeolites are complex aluminosilicates
how do zeolites act by ion exchange
explain the ion exchange of zeolites zeolite anions trap calcium ions by exchanging them for their own sodium ions
optical brighteners fluorescent whitening agents
optical brighteners are compounds called blancophors (colorless dyes)
how do blancophos work as optical brighteners absour invisible ultraviolet component of sunlight and reemit it as visible light at the blue and of the spectrum
liquid laundry detergents can be made with (3things) sodium citrate, sodium carbonate or seolites
cheapest sufactants in liquid laundry detergents LAS surfactants
four common surfactants used in liquid laundry AES, LAS, alcohol ethoxylates and alkylphenol ethoxylates
what are alcohol ethoxylates most useful for washing clothes that have to be washed on cold becuase they are most soluble in cold water
liquid detergents might ad __ or __ to help them disolve reallly gross stuff a solvent( ehtanol, alcohol) or an enzyle(lipase)
liquid detergents for washing dishes by hand usually contain one or more __ as an active ingrediant surfactant
the surfactant in liquid ldishwashing soap usually include __ as sodium and or the triethanolamine salt LAS
if a nonionic surfactant is used in liquid dish detergent it is usually DEA
do liquid dishwashing detergents usually contain builders hell no
automatic dishwashing detergents often contain ___and should not be used for dishwashing alkaline
in cationic surfactants the working part is a positive ion
many cationic surfactants are __ __ salts quanternary ammonion salts
formation of cation 4 hydrocarbon groups attatched to a nitrogen atom
formation of the cation used for fabric softener another quaternary salt with 2 long chains and two smaller nitrogen groups
bleaches are oxidizing agents that remove colored stains from fabrics
familliar bleaches are 5.25% __ sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solutions)
whats the problem with hypochlorite bleaches they release chlorine rapidly and can be damaging to fabrics turns polyester yellow
symclosene is an example of a __ type of bleach cyanurate
what does cyanurate bleach do in solid form so it releases chlorine slowly in water to minimize clothing damage
oxygen releasing bleaches usually contain __ or __ sodium per carbonate or sodium perborate
in oxygen releaseing bleaches what acts as a bleach in hot water hydrogen peroxide
borates are toxic and require what three things to meet an equivalant to chlorine bleach higher temperatures, alkalinity and concentrations
fabrics last longer when __bleaching is used oxygen bleaching
percarbonate bleaches act like a combination between hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate
__ are becoming the prodominant form of oxygen bleach percarbonate bleaches
bleaches act on light absorbing chemical groups called chromophores
the lime buildup in the toilet bowl is mainly __ calcium carbonate
what is the crystaline product used for toilet cleaner sodium bisulfate
what is the liquid cleanser for toilets called hydrochloric acid (HCl)
most powdered cleansers contain an abraisive such as _ used for silica (SiO2) rubbing stains from surfaces
a __ is used in cleaners to dissolve grease surfactant
most common glass cleaner is isopropyl alcohol diluted with water
what else can be added to make glass cleaners stronger ammonia or vinegar
what is the most important ingrediant in drain cleaners and what does it do sodium hydroxide, it reacts with water to create heat to melt the grease in the pipes...it also reacts with fat in the pipes to make soap
three other possible additions to drain cleaners bleach, concentrated sodium hydroxide , aluminum metal
oven cleaners are made of sodium hydroxide
solvents are used in the home for what remove stuff like paint varnish adhesives ect
petroleum solvents can be added to all purpose cleaners for cutting grease
hazard about solvents narcodical and flamable
three main ingredients in paint pigment, binder, solvent
universal pigment taking the place of white lead titanium dioxide
white lead was banned in 1977
binder aka film former
role of film former binds pigment particles together and holds them on the painted surface
binder in oil paints is usually __or__ tung oil or linseed oil
waterbased paints binder is usually a polymer of somekind
most common interior paint binder polyvinyl acetate
exterior water based paints binders acrylic resins
solvent thats very resistant to sunlight and rain acrylic latex binder
chemical makeup of a wax ester of a long chain organic acid with a long chain alcohol
cornauba wax coating that forms on the leaves of certain palm trees in Brazil
spermaceti wax extracted from the head of a sperm whale, largly cetyl palmitate
lanolin wax from sheeps wool, makes skin creams
what two things did egyptians use to make green eyeshadow powdered antimony, green copper ore malachite
claudius galen greek , invented cold cream
ladies of the 18th century whitened their faces with lead carbonate (lead poisoning)
__$ on cosmetics 89 billion
technical defonition of cosmetics ....stuff to alter appearance
legal defontion of drug affect the bodys structure or function
__ is excluded from both the drug and cosmetics legal definitions soap
drugs must be proven __ before marketed safe and effective
two main parts of epidermus dead cells on outside (corneal layer) and live cells on the inside
corneal layer is composed mainly of keratin
keratin must have a moisture content of _% 10
skin is protected from loss of moisture by sebum
sebun protects skin from loss of moisture, oilly seccretion of the sebaccous glands
cosmetics are applied to dead cells on the __ layer corneal
lotion emulsion of tiny oil droplets dispersed in water
cream water droplets dispersed in oil
essential ingredient of either a lotion or cream is fatty or oily substance
emollients skin softeners
how to emillients keep the skin moist form a barrier that hunders evaporation of water from the skin
moisturizers job hold moisure in the skin
UV rays make skin darker by triggering development of melanin
suncreen lotions block __rays and allow __ rays UV-B rays and allow UV-a rays through
old sunscreen was made with (PABA)
problem with PABA sunscreen water soluble washed off!
now wat is used in sunscreeen OMC used in 90% of sunscreen lotions
spf stands for skin protection factor
lipstickes are made of __and __ oil and wax
three oils commonly used in lipsticks castor oil, sesame oil or mineral oil
thee common waxes in lipstick beeswax, carnauba and canelilla
what provides color to lipstick bromoacid dyes
mascara has a base of (4) soap, oils, fats, waxes
eye shadow has a bas eof petroleum jelly
eye shadow composition 60%petroleum jelly 10% fats and waxes 6%lanolin
deodorants have two main things perfume and germicide
germicide in deodorant is usually made up of triclosan
antiperperants are different from deodorants because they have astrigents
astrigents are constrict the opening of the sweat glands restricting perspiration allowed to escape
astrigens are usually made up of zirconium and aluminum chlorides and hydroxides
__ is the most imporant cosmetic product toothpaste
essential ingredients in toothpaste (2) detergent and abrasive
typical toothpaste detergent (chemical name) alkyl sulfates
the enamle of teeth is composed mainly of hydroxyapatite
flouride converts part of the enamle to flourapatire which is stronger and more resistant to decay!
3 notes of perfume top note, middle note, end note
top note most volatile, small molecules, first application of perfume
middle note intermediate volatility, lingering aroma after compounds have vaporized
end note has low volatility, large molecules musky odor
androstenol found in hair and urine may be sex attractant for females
colognes perfumes diluted with ethylk alcohol or an alcohol water mixture
perfumes usually contain __% fragrant compounds 10-25
colognes are oly _% as strong as perfumes 10
hair is composed primarily of the fibrous protein keratin
protein molecules (in hair) are made of amino acids which are held together by four forces .. hyrdogen bonds, salt bridges, disulfide linkages, dispersion foces
water disrupts __ bonds (hair) hydrogen
changes in Ph disrupt __ bonds salt bridges
permanent waving or straitening of hair disrupts ___ bonding disulfide linkages
keratin of hair has more or less disulfide linkages as the keratin of skin more lots more
water disrupts __ making the hair feel __ hydrogen bonds makes hair soft and stretchable
the maximum number of salt bridges exist at a pH of __ 4.1
the visible portion of hair is (dead or alive ) the root of hair is (dead or alive) dead; alive
the hair shaft is lubricated by sebum
before ww2 the cleansin agent in shampoo was soap
cleansing agent in modern shampoos synthetic detergent
in adult shampoos detergent is usually __type ...same detergent used in __ anionic type (sodium dodecyl sulfate) same used in toothpaste
in shampoo for babies the detergent type is usually amphoteric surfactant (less irritating to the eyes
amphoteric detergents react with both acids and bases
only essential ingredient in shampoo is a detergent of some sort
shampoo for oily hair is more __ while shampoo for dry hair is more ___ concentrated; diluted
what gives hair body why protein, hair is protein
conditioners are made mainly of long chain __ or long chain __ long chain alchols or long chain quaternary ammonium salts
most shampoos have a pH between __and__ 5 and 8
color of hair and skin is determined by the relative amounts of what two pigmesnts melanin (brownish black) and phaeomelanin (redish brown.redheads)
whad is the oxidizing agent usually used to bleach hair hydrogen peroxide
para-phenylenediamine (hair) derivative of aromatic amine, used in permanet dyes (black colored)
para-aminodiphenylaminesulfonic acid used in blonde hair dying formulations
MMPD (hair) in dying to produce an intermediate color, carcinogenic when fed to rats
substitute fo MMPD EMPD (causes mutations in bacteria)
grecian formula gradual hair dying using lead acetate, darker colors
permanent wave lotion contains __ to rupture the disulfide linkages reducing agents such as thiogycolic acid
reducing agent in perming causes what to happen protein chains are pulled appart as hair is held in curler position
after the protein bonds are broken in a perm what happens hair is treated with oxidizing agen (hydrogen peroxide) and disulfide linkages are formed in new positions
hairsprays in hair hold it by the use of resins
PVP (hair) hairspray
a mousse iss foam or froth .. in hair a holding resin
chemicals that remove unwanted hair are called depilatories
depilatories remove hair
most deilatories for removing hair contain a soluble sulfur compound
how do depilatories work they are strongly baisica and destroy some peptid ebonds in the hair so it can be washed off
minoxidil was first introduced as a drug for treating high blood pressure
rogain is __ minoxidil
biodegradeable detergents have __ chains linear hydrocarbon
cationic surfactants with two long hydrocarbon chains are used as fabric softeners
cationic surfactants are used as disinfectants
esters of fatty acids with long chain alcohols waxes
eye makeup and lipstick are blends of mainly 3 things oil waxes and pigments
toothpaste contains 5 main things detergent , absaisive, thicker, flavoring, often flouride compound
red hair contains the pigment phaeomelanin
dark hair contains the pigment melanin
blonde hair contains the pigment not much of either
Created by: zielske