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WGU-Organic Chem 13

Organic Chemistry Laboratory Techniques

IR The infrared spectrum of a sample is recorded by passing a beam of infrared light through the sample. Examination of the transmitted light reveals how much energy was absorbed at each wavelength
NMR In a magnetic field, NMR active nuclei (such as 1H or 13C) absorb at a frequency characteristic of the isotope. The resonant frequency, energy of the absorption and the intensity of the signal are proportional to the strength of the magnetic field
Distillation method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
IR absorption O-H 3200-3500 strong and broad
IR absorption N-H 3100-3500 medium
IR absorption C-H 2850-3100 medium to strong
IR absorption C triple bond H 2100-2260 weak
IR absorption C=O 1630-1800 strong
IR absorption C=C 1600-1680 weak
IR absorption C-O 1050-1250 strong
IR absorption alkane C-H stretching 2850-3000 strong
IR absorption alkane CH2 bending 1450 medium
IR absorption alkane CH3 bending 1375 and 1450 weak to medium
IR absorption alkene C-H stretching 3000-3100 weak to medium
IR absorption alkene C=C stretching 1600-1680 weak to medium
IR absorption alkyne C-H stretching 3300 weak to medium
IR absorption alkyne C triple bond C stretching 2100-2260 weak to medium
IR absorption alcohol O-H(hydrogen bonded) 3200-3500 medium, broad
IR absorption alcohol C-O 1050-1250 medium
IR absorptions of aromatic hydrocarbons C-H stretching 3000 medium to weakC-H bending 690-900 strongC=C stretching 1475 and 1600 strong to medium
IR absorptions of carboxylic acids C=O 1700-1725
IR absorptions of esters C=O 1735-1800
IR absorptions of amides C=O 1630-1680
signal splitting n+1 rule a proton with n neighbors appears as a cluster of this rules peaks.
Carbon chemical shift 0-50 sp3 carbon(tertiary>secondary>primary)
carbon chemical shift 50-80 sp3 carbon bonded to electronegative element such as N, O, X. the more electronegative the element,the larger the chemical shift.
Carbon chemical shift 100-160 sp2 carbon of an alkene or an aromatic compound
carbon chemical shift 160-180 carbonyl carbon of a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid derivative
carbon chemical shift 180-210 carbonyl carbon of a ketone or an aldehyde
goal of distillation separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
how distillation works Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from seawater. Air is distilled to separate its components—notably oxygen, nitrogen, and argon—for industrial use
fractional distillation the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate
simple distillation simple distillation is usually used only to separate liquids whose boiling points differ greatly (rule of thumb is 25 °C)or to separate liquids from involatile solids or oils
Created by: elainero