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WGU-Organic Chem 9

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

hydrogen bonding increases solubility in water
polarity of an alcohol's OH group raises its boiling point by because the molecules stick to each other through dipole interaction
polarity affects solubility by making it easier to stick to and separate the water molecules
boiling points of ethanol and dimethyl ether differ because steric hindrance of the ether's alkyl groups makes the boiling point lower than alcohols but higher than alkanes
boiling point trend higher bp for longer chains; higher bp for more branched chains; higher bp for ethers, than alcohols, then aldehydes and ketones, then carboxylic acids
boiling point comparison
solubility trends more soluble with more hydrogen bonding strength; alkanes < thiols < amines < ethers < aldehydes and ketones < alcohols < carboxylic acids
solubility comparison
causes of trends in boiling points steric hindrance, dipole-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding, dimeric hydrogen bonding
causes of trends in solubility hydrogen bonding and polarity
hydrophilic hydrogen bonds love water
hydrophobic alkane tails hate water
molecular weight affects solubility by the heavier the alkane the less soluble, the more surface area the less soluble?
alkane physical states at 25 C, 4-Carbon chain or smaller are gases, 5-10 carbon chain are liquids, 11 and up are solids
alkanes are held together by weak dispersion forces which are the weakest of all the intermolecular forces
alkanes can become solids by lowering temperature
alkanes boiling points are very low because they are held by weak dispersion forces
larger alkanes have _____ boiling points than smaller alkanes higher
unbranched alkanes have _____ boiling points than branched alkanes because of surface area higher
branched alkanes have _____ surface area than unbranched alkanes less
alkanes and cycloalkanes have _______ physical properties similar
because alkenes are _______ the only interactions between alkene molecules are _________ forces nonpolar, dispersion
properties of alkenes are _______ to alkanes similar
alcohols have _______ bonds that make the molecules more ________ to one another which makes the boiling point _________ than alkanes of similar molecular weight hydrogen; attracted; higher
water and alcohols are both _______ , therefore the smaller alcohols with smaller ________ chains are __________ in water polar; nonpolar; soluble
alcohols with ___________ chains are soluble in ________ solvents such as hexane and benzene nonpolar; nonpolar
ethers are ______ molecules with oxygen carrying a partial _______ charge polar; negative
although ethers are ______ their is too much steric ________ that keeps their boiling point not much more _______ than alkanes polar; hindrance; higher
the oxygen in ethers contributes to _______ bonding which makes it _______ soluble in water than alkanes hydrogen; more
thiols most notable physical property is their stench
thiols _____ bond is not as ______ as O-H bond of alcohols S-H; polar
thiols have _______ boiling points and are _____ soluble than alcohols lower; less
alcohols are _______ acidic weakly
thiols are slightly ______ acidic than alcohols more
thiols are _______ oxidized easily
phenols are _____ acidic than simple alcohols because the phenoxide anion is more _______ than an alkoxide anion more; stable
when adding more substituents to a phenol ring, the rule is the _____ stable the more acidic more
phenols with electron-withdrawing groups like flourine atoms are _____ acidic than phenol more
phenols with electron-releasing alkyl groups are ______ acidic than phenol less
Amines are _______ compounds and primary and secondary amines can make intramolecular ________ bonds which makes the boiling point ________ than alkanes polar; hydrogen; higher
since amines can take part in _______ bonding it makes them ____ ________ in water than alkanes hydrogen; more soluble
N-H hydrogen bonds are not as ________ as O-H hydrogen bonds strong
amines are ______ bases weak
any group that is attached to an amine that ______ electron density increases basicity releases
any group that is attached to an amine that _______ electron density decreases basicity withdraws
aldehydes and ketones have ________ boiling points than alkanes due to their _________ interactions of their carbonyl group higher, dipole-dipole
aldehydes and ketones ____________ are not as strong as alcohols therefore their solubility and boiling points are ________ than alcohols dipole-dipole hydrogen bonding interactions; less and lower
grignard reagents are _______ basic highly
carboxylic acids exist as _______,_______ bonded structures in the liquid and solid state dimeric, hydrogen
Because carboxylic acids exist in ________ structures they have _______ boiling points than alcohols or aldehydes dimeric; higher
Carboxylic acids are also _______ soluble in water than alcohols and aldehydes more
unsubstituted carboxylic acids are relatively ______ acidic
electron withdrawing halogen atoms adjacent to the carboxylic group _______ acidity increases
Created by: elainero