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WGU-Organic Chem 8

functional groups

different classes of hydrocarbons saturated alkanesunsaturated alkenes, alkynes, arenes
saturation no double or triple bonds
degree of unsaturation C + 1 βˆ’ 0.5 * (H + X βˆ’ N)
unsaturation has at least one double or triple bonds
alkyl group R- R=alkane
hydroxyl group -OH
how are alkanes and cycloalkanes related They are both hydrocarbons, have no functional groups, and are aliphatic
aromatic compound must have 6 electrons from 3 double bonds delocalized in a pi bond
why are cycloalkanes not aromatic must have 6 pi electrons
cycloalkanes types of alkanes which have one or more rings of carbon atoms in the chemical structure of their molecules
aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds that do not contain aromatic rings
aromatic hydrocarbon compounds that contain aromatic rings
benzene ring an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. It is sometimes abbreviated Ar–H
arene Ar-H
aryl group Ar- Simple aromatic ring
cis isomer same side of double bond on different carbons
trans isomer opposite side of double bond on different carbons
alkenes double bonds
alkynes triple bonds
E configuration (from the German entgegen) means opposite and corresponds to the term trans higher atomic numbers are given higher priority more than one atom has lower priority
Z configuration (from the German zusammen) means together and corresponds to the term cis;higher atomic numbers are given higher priority more than one atom has lower priority
haloalkanes R-X X is a halogen
alcohols R-OH
ethers R-O-R'
amines RNH2 primary, R2NH secondary, or R3N tertiary
aldehydes R-(C=O)H
ketones R-(C=O)R'
carboxylic acids R-(C=O)OH
esters R-(C=0)-OR' carboxylic acid where H is replaced with an alkyl group, contains carbonyl group C=O
anhydrides R(C=O)-O-(C=O)R'
acyl group R(C=O)-
priority naming: carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl The highest precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form (-en and -yn) and are used with other suffixes carboxyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl, amino,
Created by: elainero