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WGU-Organic Chem 7

Acid-Base Reaction Review

acetic acid CH3COOH strong acid
carbonic acid H2CO3 strong acid
hydrogen sulfide H2S weak acid
dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO4- weak acid
ammonium ion NH4+ weak acid
hydrocyanic acid HCN weak acid
phenol C6H5OH weak acid
bicarbonate ion HCO3- weak acid
hydrogen phosphate ion HPO4 2- weak acid
water H2O weak acid
ethanol C2H5OH weak acid
Iodide ion Weak Base
chloride ion Weak Base
hydgrogen sulfate ion Weak Base
nitrate ion Weak Base
water Weak Base
sulfate ion Weak Base
dihydrogen phosphate ion Weak Base
acetate ion Weak Base
bicarbonate ion Strong Base
hydrogen sulfide ion Strong Base
hydrogen phosphate ion Strong Base
ammonia Strong Base
cyanide ion Strong Base
phenoxide ion Strong Base
carbonate ion Strong Base
phosphate ion Strong Base
hydroxide ion Strong Base
ethoxide ion Strong Base
most important factor determining relative acidities of organic compounds stability of molecular structure where the greater the electronegativity of anion formed when H is removed the more stable the more acidic
how electronegativity, resonance, and inductive effect determine stability of anions greater electrondegativity, more resonant structures, delocalized negative charge(neg side and pos side) make better acids that want to give up H+ or proton
Hydroiiodic acid HI strong acid
hydrochloric acid HCl strong acid
Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 strong acid
Nitric Acid HNO3 strong acid
Hydronium ion H3O+ strong acid
Hydrogen sulfate ion strong acid
Phosporic Acid H3PO4 strong acid
Arrhenius Acid dissociate in aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions (H+)
Arrhenius Base which dissociate in aqueous solution to form hydroxide (OH−) ions
Bronsted-Lowry Acid ability to "donate" hydrogen ions (H+) or protons
Bronsted-Lowry Base ability to "accept" hydrogen ions (H+) or protons
Rules for using curved arrows Show the change in position of electron pairs where tail is at electron pair and head shows new position showing bond formation or breaking
1st Rule of writing acceptable Resonance Contributing Structures must have the same number of valence electrons
2nd Rule of writing acceptable Resonance Contributing Structures must obey the rules of covalent bonding 2e- for H, 2nd Per. 8e- 3rd Per 12e-
3rd Rule of writing acceptable Resonance Contributing Structures positions of all nuclei must be the same with differences only in distribution of valence e-
4th Rule of writing acceptable Resonance Contributing Structures must have the same total number of unpaired and paired e-
strong acid an acid that ionises completely in an aqueous solution by losing one proton
strong base compound that is able to deprotonate very weak acids in an acid-base reaction
1st step to determine position of acid-base equilibrium identify two acids on each side of equation
2nd step to determine position of acid-base equilibrium determine which acid is the stronger
3rd step to determine position of acid-base equilibrium identify the stronger base knowing that the stronger acid gives a weaker base
4th step to determine position of acid-base equilibrium stronger acid and base react to give weaker acid and base therefore equilibrium goes toward the weaker acid and base
Acidity of alcohols, water, and carboxylic acid alcohols weaker than water and much weaker than carboxylic acids
Created by: elainero



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