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WGU-Organic Chem 4

Kinetics and Equilibrium

spontaneity the direction that a process will take, if left alone and given sufficient time
entropy the quantitative measure of disorder
absolute entropy represents the entropy change of a substance taken from absolute zero to a given temperature
second law of thermodynamics the total entropy of the universe increases in a spontaneous process
third law of thermodynamics a pure, perfect crystal at 0 Kelvin has zero entropy
free energy G-the part of a system's energy that is ordered and available to become spontaneously disordered
dynamic equilibrium exists when a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change
equilibrium constant Keq ratio of the rate constants fo rthe forward reaction and the reverse
Le Chatelier's principle If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium will adjust to compensate for that stress
reaction mechanism the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs
temperature affects reaction rates The two molecules will only react if they have enough energy. By heating the mixture, you will raise the energy levels of the molecules involved in the reaction. Increasing temperature means the molecules move faster.
concentration affects reaction rates Increasing the concentration of the reactants will increase the frequency of collisions between the two reactants that are at high enough energy levels to react.
catalyst Substance that alters the velocity of a chemical reaction and may be recovered essentially unaltered in form and amount at the end of the reaction
relationship between entropy and spontaneous direction concept of entropy evolved in order to explain why some processes are spontaneous and others are not; systems tend to progress in the direction of increasing entropy.[8] Entropy is as such a function of a system's tendency towards spontaneous change
how to measure absolute entropy Delta S = Delta Q/T. So, we measure the heat removed or added to the system, and divide by the temperature of the system to find the change in entropy
an imperfect crystal does not have zero entropy because there is still vibrational energy moving molecules around
why does entropy increase when heated when a substance is heated, its entropy increases because the energy acquired and that previously within it can be far more dispersed on the previous higher energy levels and on those additional high energy levels that now can be occupied
calculate change in entropy given products and reactants entropy the entropies of the products minus the entropies of the reactants keeping in mind that number of moles are multiplied by the individual entropies
determine spontaneity from change in free energy delta G is negative spontaneous delta G is zero equilibrium delta G is positive nonspontaneous reaction
change in free energy when temperature changes delta G=-RTlnK where delta G gets greater as Temperature gets greater
adding reactant leads to formation of products because the balance is leaning towards reactants so we need more products to balance it out
removing a product leads to formation of more products because the balance is leaning towards reactants so we will need more products to balance it out
increasing temperature shift the equilibrium in the endothermic direction because because endothermic reactions use it heat to drive it therefore adding heat will drive an endothermic reaction
how to write and solve for K concentrations of products over concentrations of reactants each to their stoichiometric power
change in temperature affects equilibrium by more heat shifts towards endothermic reaction where less heat shifts towards exothermic reaction
change in pressure affects equilibrium by more pressure shifts towards side with less moles where less pressure shifts towards side with more moles
change in concentration affects equilibrium by more products towards reactants less products toward products more reactants toward products less reactants toward reactants
addition of a catalyst affects equilibrium by in no way at all it speeds up both forward and reverse reactions it does not affect equilibrium
Created by: elainero