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WGU-Organic Chem 1

Energy and Heat

QuestionAnswer
energy power which may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance, or effecting physical change; the ability to do work. Symbol E
work energy used to move an object against an opposing force
kinetic energy energy of motion 1/2 mass x volume squared
potential energy Potential energy is that energy which an object has because of its position
law of conservation of energy first law of thermodynamics-energy cannot be created nor destroyed, just transferred
system and surroundings when energy flows into a system from the surroundings, the system gains energy(from/into/loses)
heat transfer of thermal energy between system and surroundings
heat capacity amount of heat required to raise one mole of substance by one degree Celsius
specific heat amount of heat per unit mass required to raise one mole of substance by one degree Celsius
first law of thermodynamics Law of conservation of energy-energy cannot be created nor destroyed, just transferred
bond energy amount of energy required to break a covalent bond
exothermic loss of energy delta E is -
endothermic gain in energy delta E is +
calorimeter container designed to create an isolated system, so that heat measurements can be carefully made(either constant-volume or constant-pressure)
enthalpy delta H-heat for a process under constant pressure conditions
delta H = delta E + P(delta V)
P x V = n x R x T
heat of solution energy released or required to dissolve a specific quantity of a a given substance in water
heat of dilution energy released or required to dilute an existing solution
Molar Heat of Fusion energy required to melt one mole of a given substance
Molar Heat of Vaporization energy required to evaporate one mole of a given substance
standard heat of formation delta Hf- delta Hrxn to create 1 mole of product from its elements in their standard states
Hess' Law of heat summation the overall heat gain/loss in a chemical process equals the sums of the enthalpy changes in each step of the process(delta Htot=delta H1 + delta H2 + ...)
molar energy change (delta Emolar)change in energy for a process that involves one mole of a given material
work = -external pressure x change in volume
change in energy of the system equal system heat plus system work
change in energy of the universe change in energy of the system plus the change in energy of the surroundings which equals zero
measurement for energy joule(J)=1 N m=1 kg m squared/seconds squared
1 L atm 101.325 joules
1 calorie 4.184 Joules
1 Cal 1 kcal
1st Step in calculating energy change using a calorimeter take measurements of the mass of the material and before temperature
2nd Step in calculating energy change using a calorimeter mix chemical reagents being studies directly in the calorimeter and measure after temperature
3rd Step in calculating energy change using a calorimeter calculate where change in energy(delta q)=mass of the solution(m) x change in temperature(delta t) x specific heat of the solution(water=1.00 cal/gC or 4.185 J/gC)
reaction energy(delta Hrxn)= sum of bond energies broken - sum of bond energies formed
Created by: elainero