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*WGU Chemistry SCC4

General Facts from entire course

Calculate Oxidation # of an element Molecule charge = (# of O)(oxygen's oxidation #: -2)+element in questionEX: SO3^2- calculate oxidation # of S-2=3(-2)+S; -2=-6+S; add 6 to both side to cancel; S=4
LEO the lion says GER loose electrons oxidize; gain electrons reduce
Base Proton acceptor
Acid Proton donor
Reactions in solutions Write equation from species present; balance equation; determine moles of reactants; identify limiting reactant; determine moles of products
To determine molarity of a compound M=moles of solute/L of solution
To determine molality Molal=moles of solute/mass of solvent(kg)
To determine % yield %yield=actual yield/theoretical yield x 100
To convert mL to L Multiply by 1000
To figure mols/L L x moles reactant/L
Oxidation Agent Species involved in the reduction reaction
Reduction Agent Species involved in the oxidation reaction
Anions Negative charge; Larger than neutral element because electron cloud is screened by electrons and pull toward nucleus is less
Cations positive charge; Smaller than neutral element because more electrons in electron cloud causes nuclear pull to be stronger
Periodic Trend: Atomic Size →decreasing↓increasing
acceleration the rate of change of velocity; distance/time2
Alcohol a class of organic compounds with the general structure R-OH
Alkane a saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n + 2
Alkene an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond and has the general formula CnH2n
ampere (A) the SI base unit of electric current; 1 A = 1 C/s
atmosphere (atm) a non-SI unit of pressure; 1 atm = 1.013250 x 105 Pa
Avogadro's number (NA) the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12; NA = 6.0221367 x 1023; the number of things in a mole
Cation a positively charged ion
base SI unit one of the seven fundamental SI units; the meter (m) for length
combustion reaction an exothermic reaction in which a substance is combined with oxygen gas
density mass/volume
dimensional analysis a method for solving for a quantity by multiplication by conversion factors
electron a subatomic particle with a negative charge and a mass of 9.1092897 x 10-31 kg
exothermic a process in which energy is given off by a system; q < 0
ion an atom or group of atoms with a net positive or negative charge
energy the capacity to do work or transfer heat
excited state any energy state of the electron higher than the ground state
ground state the lowest available energy state for a given electron
hydrocarbon a molecule made up entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms
ionic compound a compound composed of anions and cations
isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but with different atomic structures
isotopes atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
kinetic energy (KE or Ek) the energy associated with particles in motion; KE = (1/2)mv2
linear relationship a mathematical relationship between two quantities such that as one increases
mass number the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given isotope; the relative atomic mass of a given isotope; the total number of nucleons in an atom
mole the amount of substance that contains as many particles as exactly 12 grams of carbon-12; 6.0221367 x 1023 things
Newton (N) the SI unit of force; 1 N = 1 kg•m/s2
Noble gas an element from group 18(VIIIA) on the periodic table; an nonreactive element with an entirely filled valence shell
Oxoacid an acid that contains oxygen; oxyacid
pascal (Pa) the SI unit of pressure; 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 9.869233 x 10-6 atm
HSO3 - bisulfite
CO3 2- carbonate
C2H3O2 - acetate
C2O4 2- oxalate
Cr2O7 2- dichromate
ClO4 - perchlorate
S2O3 2- thiosulfate
HClO4 perchloric acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HSO4 - bisulfate
NH4 + ammonium ion
CrO4 2- chromate
OH- hydroxide
O2 2- peroxide
HCOO- formate
SO4 2- sulfate
SO3 2- sulfite
CN- cyanide
MnO4 - permanganate
HNO3 nitric acid
HCl hydrochloric acid
BaSO4 barium sulfate – not soluble
PbSO4 lead sulfate – not soluble
CaSO4 calcium sulfate – not soluble
Sr(OH)2 Strontium hydroxide – base - mostly soluble
Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide – base – mostly soluble
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
Rb+ rubidium ion – soluble
Cs+ cesium ion – soluble
K+ potassium ion – soluble
Na+ sodium ion – soluble
Li+ lithium ion – soluble
NO3 - nitrate – soluble
HCO3 - bicarbonate
SCN - thiocyanide
S2O2 2- thiosulfate
HgSO4 mercury sulfate – not soluble
Pb+ lead ion – not soluble
Hg2 2+ mercury salt – not soluble
S 2- Sulfur – slightly soluble
Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide – strong base – mostly soluble
PO4 3- phosphate
Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT where P is pressure(atm); V is volume(in L); n is # of moles of gas; R is 0.08206; T is temperature (in K)
STP standard temperature and pressure; T is 0°C or 273K; P is 1 atm
Periodic Trend: electronegativity →increases ↓decreases
Periodic Trend: Ionization energy →increases ↓decreases
Periodic Trend: electron affinity →increasingly negative ↓decreasingly negative
Covalent Bond when two atoms share electrons
Ionic bond when a atom transfers one of it’s electrons to another atom
Parts per million mass of solute/total mass of solution x 1
Percent by mass mass of solute/total mass of solution x 100
Steps to balance Reduction Oxidation equations in acid 1.write 2 ½ equations; 2. balance all not O or H; 3. add H20 to balance O; 4. add H+ to balance H in H2O; 5. add electrons to balance charges; 6. balance e- on both sides by multiplying whole ½ equation as needed; 7. Cancel out and re-write.
Steps to balance Reduction Oxidation equations in base follow steps for acid and then 1. add OH- to both sides to cancel all H+; 2. combine H+ and OH- to form H2O; 3. add H2O; 4. check atoms and charge for balance.
Ionization energy the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom and make it into an ion.
Electron affinity the energy change in an atom when it gains an electron.
Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract an electron of another atom when they are associated through a bond
Octet rule states that an atom is more likely to gain electrons the more full it’s valence shell becomes.
Ionic compounds high electricity conductors when dissolved in H2O; hard crystals; mostly soluble
Dissociation when ionic compounds dissolve into their separate ions in water.
Sublimation when a solid is taken into is gaseous form
Titration used to find the amount of an unknown substance by adding a known substance to neutralize the unknown.
Net ionic equation includes only the species of an equation that is involved in the reaction (reactants → precipitates)
Enthalpy E=PV
Exothermic reaction when energy is given off by reaction (& heats surroundings)
Endothermic reaction when energy is used up by a reaction (& cools surroundings)
Created by: 1018784491
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