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Translation (protein synthesis)

The transfer of genetic information from nucleotide language into AA language of proteins Translation
Genetic coding includes__ nucleotides and __ AAs, __ combinations 4, 20, 64
Stop codons UAA, UGA, UAG
____ mutations – one base is altered point
_____ (point) mutation – changed codon may code for the same AA Silent
______ (point)mutation – changed codon may code for different AA Missense
_____ (point)mutation – changed codon may become a termination codon Nonsense
In the sickle cell gene, GTG (Val) replaces the normal GAG (Glu) Missense mutation
The number of inserted or deleted nucleotides is not multiple of three Frameshift mutation
Components req. for translation 1)mRNA and tRNAs 2)Ribosomes Protein factors3) Amino Acids 4)energy sources
Has an attachment site for specific AA at 3’-end,Contains anticodon that recognizes codon on mRNA, Specifies insertion of AA into growing peptide tRNA
Has an attachment site for specific AA at 3’-endContains anticodon that recognizes codon on mRNASpecifies insertion of AA into growing peptide Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
Ribosome has __ sites for tRNA molecules 3 (A, P, and E)
__ site binds incoming aminoacyl-tRNA and specifies next AA to be added A
__ site is occupied by peptidyl-tRNA, this tRNA carries synthesized peptide P
__ site is occupied by empty tRNA as it is about to exit E
Energy used to attach AA to tRNA? ATP
Energy use for binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to A site and for translocation step? GTP
tRNA can recognize more than one codon for specific AA – wobble hypothesis (Nontraditional base-pairing)
Prokaryotic mRNAs often have several coding regions - polycistronic
Eukaryotic mRNA codes for only one polypeptide chain – monocistronic
Translation is divided into three separate steps: initiation, elongation, and termination
_________ involves the assembly of components of translation system initiation
___ codon at the beginning of message is recognized by initiator tRNA that enters __ site AUG, "P"
In ___________ and mitochondria, initiator tRNA carries N-formylated methionine prokaryotes
In ________ , Met in initiator tRNA is not formylated eukaryotes
binds to the 30S subunit,Interferes with initiation,Causes misreading of mRNA,Can cause permanent hearing loss Streptomycin
binds to 30S subunitInhibits binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to A site Tetracycline
Interferes with peptidyltransferase of 50S bacterial subunit Chloramphenicol not used in humans
Most protein synthesis occurs in ________ of eukaryotic cell cytoplasm
Nuclear proteins used for nuclear localization signal
Mitochondrial proteins used for – mitochondria entry signal
Use to regulate the rate of translation Rare codons , binding of regulatory proteins ,Small interfering RNA can target mRNA for degradation
Trimming of large inactive precursor proteins by specific proteases postranlational modification
Covalent alterations postranlational modification
Proteins that are defective or destined for rapid turnover are often marked by ________ ubiquitination
Proteins marked by ubiquitin are rapidly degraded by ____________ proteosome
Created by: 100000262702426