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# physics cset

### cset multi

Question | Answer |
---|---|

absolute zero | the lowest possible temperature, equal to 0 degrees K, -273 degrees C or -459 degrees F |

buoyancy | the upward force on an object immersed in a fluid |

calorie | a unit of measurement of energy; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water |

capillarity | the ability of liquids to rise in very thin tubes |

centrifugal | toward the perimeter |

centripetal | toward the center |

chain reaction | occurs when the fission of one atom causes the fission of other atoms |

conduction | transfer of heat or electricity |

conservation of energy | energy may be changed from form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed |

density | mass per unit volume |

doppler effect | the apparent change of pitch due to differing motions of the sounding source and a listener |

electric current | the flow of electrons; a direct current (DC) flows in one direction, while an alternating current (AC) periodically reverses the direction of flow |

energy | the ability to perform work; kinetic energy is due to a body's motion, whereas potential energy is due to a body's position |

fission | the splitting of an atomic nucleus into several lighter nuclei |

fusion | nuclear fusion is the union of atomic nuclei to a heavier nucleus |

gravitation | the attraction of bodies because of their masses |

half-life | the time required for the radioactivity of a substance to drop to half its original level |

heat | kinetic energy of molecular motion |

hypothesis | a tentative explanation of a phenomenon |

inertia | the ability of a body to resist acceleration and continue at rest or moving with uniform velocity |

mass | the quanity of matter; the measure of inertia |

momentum | the product of mass and velocity; the conservation of momentum is a fundamental law of nature |

photon | a particle of light energy |

pitch | the frequency of a sound wave |

prism | a triangular piece of glass used to disperse white light into a spectrum |

radioactivity | the spontaneous decay of an atomic nucleus with the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays |

refraction | the bending of a light wave at the boundary between two substances |

relativity | the principle that the laws of physics are the same for any two observers, whatever their relative motion |

spectrum | the band of colors from the dispersal of white light; |

electromagnetic spectrum | is the total range of frequencies for electromagnetic waves, including radio and light waves |

temperature | the average kinetic energy of a group of molecules; it determines the direction of heat flow |

thermodynamics | the study of heat energy |

volt | a unit of measurement of electrical potential; the amount of work necessary to move the charge |

watt | a unit of measurement of electrical power, the rate at which electrical energy is dissipated |

weightlessness | a condition where accelerating forces precisely offset one another |

work | the product of force and distance; it measures the action performed on an object |

physics | the most basic and most general of the natural sciences; covers subjects from matter to energy in the most general way |

scientific method | requires observation, conjecture, calculation, prediction and testing |

measurement | the beginning of scientific wisdom |

basic units of the metric system | length, volume, mass, meter, liter and gram |

motion | described by stating an object's position, velocity and acceleration. |

velocity | the rate of change of position with time |

acceleration | the rate of change of velocity with time |

Newton's laws | relate the motion of an object to the forces acting upon the |

law of inertia | asserts that in the absence of any force, a body at rest will continue at rest, while another body moving in a straight line will continueto move in that direction with uniform speed. Any change of speed or direction must be due to a force |

law of acceleration | states that a body acted on by a force will undergo acceleration proportional to the force |

law of reaction (Newton) | says that every action there is an equal and opposite reaction |

gravitation | is familiar to us through weight, which is direction proportional to mass |

potential energy | for the position could be converted into movement |

thermal energy | heat can be converted to motion and motion can produce heat |

electricity and magnetism | forms of energy, for they can be converted into heat and motion |

law of conservation of energy | states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed |

sound | is produced by the mechanical disturbance of a gas, liquid, or solid |

electricity | exists where the number of negative electrons does not precisely equal the number of positive protons |

magnetism | is displayed by permanent magnets and around electric currents |

light | seems to travel in perfectly straight lines as ray |

nuclear energy | has been obtained by two different means, fission and fusion |

Quantum theory | originated when Max Planck discovered that the radiation of energy from a heated body occurs only in integral multiples of a small quanitity (1901). |

quantum | is the product of the frequency of radiation f and the universal constant h, now known as Plancks's constant |

photoelectric effect | light induces an electric current in metals, suggests that light acts as particles of energy called photons |

uncertainty principle | it is impossible to determine the exact position and momentum of a particle |