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physics cset

cset multi

QuestionAnswer
absolute zero the lowest possible temperature, equal to 0 degrees K, -273 degrees C or -459 degrees F
buoyancy the upward force on an object immersed in a fluid
calorie a unit of measurement of energy; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water
capillarity the ability of liquids to rise in very thin tubes
centrifugal toward the perimeter
centripetal toward the center
chain reaction occurs when the fission of one atom causes the fission of other atoms
conduction transfer of heat or electricity
conservation of energy energy may be changed from form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed
density mass per unit volume
doppler effect the apparent change of pitch due to differing motions of the sounding source and a listener
electric current the flow of electrons; a direct current (DC) flows in one direction, while an alternating current (AC) periodically reverses the direction of flow
energy the ability to perform work; kinetic energy is due to a body's motion, whereas potential energy is due to a body's position
fission the splitting of an atomic nucleus into several lighter nuclei
fusion nuclear fusion is the union of atomic nuclei to a heavier nucleus
gravitation the attraction of bodies because of their masses
half-life the time required for the radioactivity of a substance to drop to half its original level
heat kinetic energy of molecular motion
hypothesis a tentative explanation of a phenomenon
inertia the ability of a body to resist acceleration and continue at rest or moving with uniform velocity
mass the quanity of matter; the measure of inertia
momentum the product of mass and velocity; the conservation of momentum is a fundamental law of nature
photon a particle of light energy
pitch the frequency of a sound wave
prism a triangular piece of glass used to disperse white light into a spectrum
radioactivity the spontaneous decay of an atomic nucleus with the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays
refraction the bending of a light wave at the boundary between two substances
relativity the principle that the laws of physics are the same for any two observers, whatever their relative motion
spectrum the band of colors from the dispersal of white light;
electromagnetic spectrum is the total range of frequencies for electromagnetic waves, including radio and light waves
temperature the average kinetic energy of a group of molecules; it determines the direction of heat flow
thermodynamics the study of heat energy
volt a unit of measurement of electrical potential; the amount of work necessary to move the charge
watt a unit of measurement of electrical power, the rate at which electrical energy is dissipated
weightlessness a condition where accelerating forces precisely offset one another
work the product of force and distance; it measures the action performed on an object
physics the most basic and most general of the natural sciences; covers subjects from matter to energy in the most general way
scientific method requires observation, conjecture, calculation, prediction and testing
measurement the beginning of scientific wisdom
basic units of the metric system length, volume, mass, meter, liter and gram
motion described by stating an object's position, velocity and acceleration.
velocity the rate of change of position with time
acceleration the rate of change of velocity with time
Newton's laws relate the motion of an object to the forces acting upon the
law of inertia asserts that in the absence of any force, a body at rest will continue at rest, while another body moving in a straight line will continueto move in that direction with uniform speed. Any change of speed or direction must be due to a force
law of acceleration states that a body acted on by a force will undergo acceleration proportional to the force
law of reaction (Newton) says that every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
gravitation is familiar to us through weight, which is direction proportional to mass
potential energy for the position could be converted into movement
thermal energy heat can be converted to motion and motion can produce heat
electricity and magnetism forms of energy, for they can be converted into heat and motion
law of conservation of energy states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed
sound is produced by the mechanical disturbance of a gas, liquid, or solid
electricity exists where the number of negative electrons does not precisely equal the number of positive protons
magnetism is displayed by permanent magnets and around electric currents
light seems to travel in perfectly straight lines as ray
nuclear energy has been obtained by two different means, fission and fusion
Quantum theory originated when Max Planck discovered that the radiation of energy from a heated body occurs only in integral multiples of a small quanitity (1901).
quantum is the product of the frequency of radiation f and the universal constant h, now known as Plancks's constant
photoelectric effect light induces an electric current in metals, suggests that light acts as particles of energy called photons
uncertainty principle it is impossible to determine the exact position and momentum of a particle
Created by: josboys