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What is the smallest possible unit of matter that cannot be further broken down by chemical or physical means? atom
What is a horizontal row on the periodic chart called? series or period
What is a vertical row on the periodic chart called? family or group
What particles are contained in the nucleus of an atom? protons and neutrons
Which element's atoms all have thirteen protons? aluminum
What is the general name of a substance composed of a chemical combination of two or more elements? compound
What is the necessary reactant along with the fuel for a combustion reaction? oxygen gas
What is the base unit for measuring length in the metric system? meter
What is the base unit for measuring mass in the metric system? gram
What is the general name for carbon-containing compounds that were once part of living things and are now found in soil? organic compounds
What family of elements do sodium, lithium, and potassium belong to? alkali metals
What family of elements do fluorine and chlorine belong to? halogens
Which family of elements are generally nonreactive and do not tend to form compounds? noble gases
Which electrons are typically involved in chemical reactions? valence electrons
How, in general, are the electrons distributed in a polar covalent bond? unequally between atoms
What are two atoms having the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons called? isotopes
How do you determine the mass number of an atom? add up the number of protons and the number of neutrons
How many bonds do carbons atoms form? four
What is the molecular geometry of methane? tetrahedral
How many valence electrons are in a carbon atom? four
Generally what type of materials will dissolve in a nonpolar solvent? a nonpolar solute
What is the name of a substance that forms a solution which conducts electricity in water? electrolyte
What concentration unit is used when the moles of a solute is divided by the liters of solution? molarity
What is the movement of water molecules across a membrane from an area of lower ion concentration to an area of higher concentration called? osmosis
What are three common strong acids? hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid
If the pH of a solution is greater than seven, what type of solution is present in general? a basic solution
What is used in the Bohr model of hydrogen to "house" the electrons? energy levels
What does oxidation involve? loss of electrons
Which electrons are typically involved in chemical reactions? valence electrons or outer shell electrons
What two categories of biomolecules are most antioxidants included in? vitamins and enzymes
What is the narrow region of wavelengths in the middle of the electromagnetic spectrum called? visible region
In a combustion reaction of a flammable organic compound, what are the two major products? water and carbon dioxide
What nuclear process takes place on the sun? fusion
What type of atom has an unstable nucleas and is likely to spontaneously undergo a nuclear reaction? radioactive atom
What nuclear process occurs when a large unstable nucleus splits to form two or more smaller nuclei? fission
What type of interactions occur between molecules and are weaker than covalent bonds? intermolecular forces
What compound is known as the universal solvent? water
What term is used to describe the ratio of mass to volume? density
What is the approximate density of water at room temperature? one gram per milliliter
What happens to atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes? it decreases
What is the term for a liquid with a high vapor pressure? volatile
What two gases make up most of air's composition? oxygen and nitrogen
What are some properties of ideal gases? they are mostly empty space, highly compressible, and have an indefinite shape
What devive is used to measure atmospheric pressure? barometer
What is heat transfer by direct contact called? conduction
What happens to a neutral atom if it gains one or more electrons? It will become negatively charged and is called an anion
What type of bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms? covalent
What happens to the number of hydrogen ions when an acid ionizes in water? they increase
Where are the electrons located in the ground state of an atom? the lowest possible energy levels
What do organic chemists call molecules containing unpaired electrons in general? free radicals
What type of electromagnetic energy has the greatest energy? gamma rays
What is the half-life of a radioactive sample? the time required for one-half of a radioactive sample to decay
What is the amount of radioactive material needed to sustain a chain reaction called? critical mass
Is salt water more or less dense than pure distilled water? more
What percentage of air is oxygen? approximately twenty percent
Created by: rshowe