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# GCSE C21 P4

### GCSE C21 P4 Explaining Motion revision

Instantaneous Speed = Distance / Time (small distance and short time)
Average Speed = Distance / Time (journey distance and journey time)
Speed from a distance time graph… find the gradient of the graph = vertical / horizontal
In a distance time graph horizontal means the object is stopped
In a distance time graph the steeper the slope... the faster the object is going
In a distance time graph the downhill section means the object is moving backwards / towards you
Velocity is speed and direction
In a velocity time graph gradient represents.... acceleration
In a velocity time graph horizontal means constant speed
In a velocity time graph the steeper the slope... the greater the acceleration
In a velocity time graph uphill sections indicate... Acceleration or speeding up (positive acceleration)
In a velocity time graph downhill sections indicate.. deceleration or slowing down (negative acceleration)
Newton’s third law: if you push against a wall the wall... pushes back on you
Resultant force is... the overall force acting on an object.
Momentum = mass x velocity
Change in momentum = FORCE x TIME (resultant FORCE x TIME for which the force acts)
Change in energy is the same as Work done
Work Done = Force x Distance
Kinetic Energy 1/2 mass x velocity squared
The formula for change in gravitational potential energy is Weight x change in height
Falling objects convert gravitational potential energy into Kinetic energy
Units for kinetic energy J or joules
Units for potential energy J or joules
Units for mass kg or kilograms
Units for speed (standard scientific units) m/s or metres per second
Units for momentum kg m/s or kilogram metres per second
Units for work done J or joules
Units for weight N or newtons (weight is a force)
Units for force N or newtons
Created by: allydavies