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Enzyme An organic compound that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction
Enzyme reaction models Lock-and-key or induced-fit; explanation of the way that an enzyme recognizes a substrate and binds to its active site.
Enzyme specificity Explanation of why some enzymes only accommodate one particular compound while others can accommodate a family of closely related compounds.
Feedback control A process in which the activation or inhibition of the first reaction in a reaction sequence is controlled by a product of the reaction sequence.
Sulfa drugs The first antibiotics used in the medical field; discovered by a German bacteriologist in 1932
Water-soluble vitamin Organic compound that must be constantly replenished in the bloodstream, is needed in frequent, small doses and is unlikely to be toxic.
Fat-soluble vitamin Organic compound that is found dissolved in lipid materials, carried in the blood by protein carriers, stored in tissues and is likely to be toxic when consumed in excess.
Nucleotide A three-subunit molecule in which a pentose sugar is bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic base.
Nucleic acid A polymer in which the monomer units are nucleotides; two major types are RNA and DNA
DNA double helix Two polynucleotide strands coiled around each other in a spiral staircase configuration with the sugar-phosphate backbones as “banisters” and the bases extending inward connected by hydrogen bonds to make “steps”.
RNA types Heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA)
Genetic code The assignment of the 64 mRNA condons to specific amino acids (or stop signals) needed for the formation of amino acids for protein synthesis.
Metabolism The sum ttotal of all the biochemical reactions that take place in a living organism.
ATP Molecule necessary in metabolism that contains three phosphoryl groups, a ribose and adenine.
Biochemical energy production Process containing four general stages (1) digestion, (2) acetyl group formation, (3) citric acid cycle and (4) electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
Created by: blaisemyers