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Carbohydrate The most abundant class of bioorganic molecules consisting of a polyhydroxy aldehyde, a polyhydroxy ketone or a compound that yields polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones upon hydrolysis.
Biochemistry The study of the chemical substances found in living organisms and the chemical interactions of these substances with each other
Monosaccharide A carbohydrate that contains a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone unit
Disaccharide A carbohydrate in which two monosaccharides are bonded together by a glycoside linkage
Polysaccharide A polymer that contains many monosaccharide units bonded to each other through glycosides linkages; also known as glycans
Lipid An organic compound found in living organisms that is insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar organic solvents
Fatty acid A naturally occurring monocarboxylic acid that nearly always contains an even number of carbon atoms in an unbranched chain.
Triacylglycerol A lipid formed by esterification of three fatty acids to a glycerol molecule
Essential fatty acid A fatty acid needed in the human body that must be obtained from dietary sources because it cannot be synthesized within the body in adequate amounts from other substances.
Phospholipid A lipid that contains one or more fatty acids, a phosphate group, a platform molecule to which the fatty acid and the phosphate group are attached, and an alcohol that us attached to the phosphate group
Cholesterol A steroid whose structure is based on a fused-ring system that involves three 6-membered rings and one 5-membered ring
Cell membrane A lipid-based structure that separates a cell’s aqueous-based interior from the aqueous environment surrounding a cell.
Hormone A biochemical substance, produced by a ductless gland, that has a messenger function.
Protein A naturally occurring, unbranched polymer in which the monomer units are amino acids.
Amino acid An organic compound that contains both an amino group and a carboxyl group.
Peptide An unbranched chain of amino acids, each joined to the next by a peptide bond
Immunoglobulin A glycoprotein produced by an organism as a protective response to the invasion of microorganisms or foreign molecules
Created by: blaisemyers