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ImportantOrganicChem

Important Organic Chemistry reactions

QuestionAnswer
What are two methods of making R-Hals? 1.Alkene + H-Hal -------> R-Hal 2.R-OH + H-Hal -----------> R-Hal + H2O
How do you make Alkenes from R-Hals? R-Hal + Na/KOH ---------> Alkenes + salt + H2O Dissolved In ethanol at high temperatures with High conc of the Na/KOH 2ary or 3ary R-Hals are preferred.
How do you make Alcohols from R-Hals? R-Hal + Na/KOH ---------> Alcohol + salt Dissolved in water at low temperatures with low concentrations of Na/KOH. 1ary or 2ary R-Hal prefered.
How do you make amines from R-Hals? R-Hal + NH3 --------> R-NH2?
How can you test for which Hal is on your R-Hal? R-Hal + Ag+ --> 1.Agcl - Wht ppt(sol In NH3) Very Slow 2.AgBr - Pale Cream ppt(Semi-sol) Slow 3.AgI - Yellow ppt(insoluble) Fast
How can you manufacture Grignards Reagent? R-Hal + Mg ------------> Grignards Reagents: Magnisium metal with trace of iodine. Usually requires cooling. In the presence of ethoxyethane
How can you make pure Alkanes with Grignards reagent? R-MgHal + H2O -----> R + Mg(OH)Hal
How can you produce a carbonyl From Grignards reagent? R-MgHal + CO2 ------> RCOMgHal + H2O -> RCOOH
How can you produce Alcohols from Grignards Reagents? R-MgHal 1.+ methanal -> R-OMgHal + HCl -> R-OH 2.+ ethanal -> 2ary R-OH 3.+ Ketone -> 3ary R-OH
How Is ethanol Produced Industrially? Ethene + H20(g) ---> Ethanol (At 300 C, 60-70 atm and with a phosphurous (v) acid catalyst)
What are the conditions at which LDPE is produced? What are its uses? T: 200 C, P 2000Atm O2 Impurity Uses: for plastic bags
What are the conditions at which HDPE is produced? What are its uses? T: 60 C P: A 2-5Atm Cat: Ziegler-Natta. Uses: milk bottles, plastic pipes and so on.
What are the 3 orientations of PP and their uses? Isotactic: Plastic Crates Atactic: Sealents, Adhesives and Roofing felt SyndioTactic: Medical tubing/bags ect.
PCE - uses and full name Poly(chloroethane) Guttering, plastic windows, cable insulation, sheet meterials footwear, clothing ect.
PTFE - uses and full name Poly(tetrafloroethane) - uses for wrapping foods and chemicals and have a non stick property used in the kitchen.
What are the manufacturing conditions of Epoxyethane? T: 250 C P:15atm Catalyst: Ag
What are the Uses of Epoxyethane? It is used to make long chain alcohols which can be used as: Anti-freeze materials, plasticizers non-ionic surfactants (detergants) and in the manufacture of polyesters.
How can you produce Carboxilic acids? R-COMgHal + H2O ----> R-COOH + Mg(OH)Hal (under acidic conditions)
How can you produce Nitriles From R-Hals? R-hal + KCN -> R-CN + KHal Reagents: Potatsium Cyanide dissolved in aquous ethanol. Conditions: heat under reflux. Doesn't work with 3ary alkanes
How can you produce amines from R-Hals? R-Hal + 2NH3 -> R-NH2 + NH4Hal Reagents ammonia in ethanolic solution
What is the equation for Fischer esterification? R-OH + R-COO ----> Ester Catalyst: H2SO4
What are acid anhydrides? Two carboxlyic acids joint by the same oxygen.
What is the Friedal-crafts reaction? Electrophillic addition of aromatic rings.
E.N of the Halogen UP: Strength of the H-hal Bond? Strength of the H-hal bond UP
Examples of nucloephiles O:Water, Hydroxide, N:Azides Cyanide and Ammonia, Metal Halides,S: Sulfer Thiols.
Examples of electrophiles H+, NO+, HCl, aklyl halides, acyl halides, Carbonyl compounds.
What is the Friedal-crafts reaction? Electrophillic addition of aromatic rings.
E.N of the Halogen UP: Strength of the H-hal Bond? Strength of the H-hal bond UP
Examples of nucloephiles O:Water, Hydroxide, N:Azides Cyanide and Ammonia, Metal Halides,S: Sulfer Thiols.
Examples of electrophiles H+, NO+, HCl, aklyl halides, acyl halides, Carbonyl compounds.
Created by: GaryLp
 

 



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