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GCSE Chemistry C1

What is the symbol equation for magnesium reacting with oxygen? 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO
Why are antioxidants added to food? Give an example of a food with antioxidants added to it. Antioxidants stop the food from reacting with oxygen. Sausages contain fats and the antioxidants are to prevents the fats oxidising.
What is an emulsifier? How does it do its job? An emulsifier stops oils and water from separating. The hydrophilic end attaches to a water molecule and the hydrophobic end attatches to the oil. This means that the oil won't separate out.
Give an example on how smart food packaging can improve the quality of packaged foods. Food packaging can tell a customer if the food is still good to eat or if it has gone off.
Silica gel sachets are placed into chilled food packs. Explain how this improves safety. This is to absorb excess water, which makes it more difficult for mould and bacteria to grow.
Explain why we don't eat uncooked potatoes. We need to break down the cellulose cell wall because we can't digest cellulose.
Give the word equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder sodium hydrogencarbonate). Sodium Hydrogencarbonate - sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water.
Esterification produces an ester and water - what are the reactants? An Acid and an alcohol.
Give three properties that a perfume has to have to make a good perfume. It has to be volatile, non-toxic and doesn't react with water.
A susbstance keeps the same volume, but it changes shape according to the container. Is it a solid, a liquid, or a gas? How are the forces of attraction between the particles? It is a liquid, and there is some forces of attraction between the particles.
What it meantt when a liquid is said to be very volatile? When a liquid is heated, the particles gain energy, which makes them move faster. Some particles move faster and break free from the forces of attraction. This is called evapouration. How easily a liquid evapourates is called its volatility.
In a salt solution, what is: the solute? The solution? The solute is the substance being dissolved and the solution is a mixture of the solute and the solvent.
Explain why nail narnish doesn't dissolve in water. The molecules of the nail varnish are strongly attracted to each other, and this attraction is stronger than between the nail varnish and the water molecules. And this is also true for the water molecules.
Give one disadvantage of burning plastics and one disadvantage of burying them. When burnt, they sometimes produce toxic sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. And by burying it, they are not biodegradable.
Name the monomer that's used to make polythene. Ethene.
Plastics stretch and melt easily. Are the forces between the polymer chains strong or weak? Weak forces.
Describe a test you can do to see if a particular hydrocarbon is an alkane or an alkene. If you put the substance in bromine solution, if it an alkane substance, the colour will stay brown. If the substance is an alkene, the bromine water will decolourise.
Give the general equation for an alkene containing a double bond. CnH2n
Why can small hydrocarbonsmolecules change state from liquid to gas faster than larger hydrocarbons? They have a lower boiling point.
What is cracking used for? It is used to meet supply and demand of oils and substances such as petrol etc.
What two conditions are needed for cracking to happen? Why? It has to be hot and a catalyst has to be present.
Give four factors which affect the choice of fuel for a job. TEACuPS! : Toxitity, Energy Value, Availablility, Cost, Pollution, Stroage.
Give three advantages of complete combustion over incomplete combustion. It produces a lot of energy, and only produces only 2 harmful waste products. It burns with a clear blue flame.
Created by: MychemicalMad