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chemicals & DNA

Who discovered that the amount of adenine in DNA always equals the amount of thymine? Erwin Chargaff
Nucleotides are made of a sugar, a phosphate, and WHAT ELSE? A base
What is a string of nucleotides that has information for making one trait? A gene
DNA is made of subunits called what? Nucleotides
What does each set of three bases found in deoxyribonucleic acid is a code for? An amino acid
What is the first step in making a protein? RNA copying DNA
What scientist made images of DNA by using X-ray diffraction? Rosalind Franklin
A very strong acid is one which completely dissolves and has a pH value which is what? A lot less than 7
What is a disease that is caused by a gene mutation affecting red blood cells? Sickle cell anemia
What type of reaction has energy (heat)being released with the products? exothermic
What type of reaction needs to have an overall input of energy with the reactants in order for it to occur? endothermic
How does grinding a solid reactant to a powder help to increase a reactin rate? it increases its surface area
What is the number two in the formula for water? a subscript
What type of reaction is it when 2 or more chemical substances combine to form one new one? synthesis
What type of reaction occurs when one chemical breaks down to several, such as H2CO3 --> H2O + CO2 decomposition
Who was the first person to call an atom 'an atom', stating that it could not be divided into smaller particles? Democritus
A solution with a pH of 2 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with what pH ? 3
Which is true of a solution with a pH of 1 ? Its a very strong acid
Who is one of the scientists credited with the most current atomic theory (electron clouds)? Schrodinger
What is the normal pH of blood? About 7
What is the value that is used to express the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a system? pH
What might the terms "straight, branched and ringed" refer to chemically? backbones of carbon in biochemicals
What does the information contained in our nucleic acid determine the order of? Amino acids in proteins
If a substance is said to be 'alkaline', what does it indicates that substance? It is basic, will taste bitter and will feel slippery to the touch
How many living Hominid species currently exist? 1
What allows metals to bond? A low number of valence electrons
Why can metal be shaped? Metallic bonds
Why are substances referred to as 'hydrocarbons'? Its made of hydrogen and carbon.
What type of biochemical compounds generally do NOT dissolve well in water? covalent
Whatis one thing neutralization reactions between acids and bases will produce? water
Brittleness is a characteristic one expects to find in what type of compound? ionic
What is the general term given to a hydrocarbon which has double or triple bonds? Unsaturated
What is the general term given to a hydrocarbon which has only single bonds? Saturated
Which of the following will react with acid to produce hydrogen gas? metal
Simple sugars are an example of what type of biochemical? carbohydrate
What molecule makes a mirror copy of sections of DNA and then helps make proteins? RNA
What is a change in DNA caused by random error called? mutation
What biochemical is composed of amino acids? protein
What is the stage at which a DNA molecule is split down the middle called? replication
What base compliments adenine? thymine
What term is given to an agent which causes a mutation? mutagen
Within a nucleus, DNA is bundled into what structures? chromosomes
Where are proteins synthsized in the cell? within the cytoplasm, on ribosomes
What is transferred by a tRNA to the ribosome? amino acid
What is the compliment to guanine? cytosine
What is the complimentary DNA strand to TAGTCA? ATCAGT
What is the complimentary DNA strand to ATCAGT? TAGTCA
What is the complimentary DNA strand to ATATAT? TATATA
What's the complimentary DNA strand to CGATCG? GCTAGC
If an electron dot figure has 6 electrons showing, how many more does it need to fill its outer shell? 2
If an electron dot figure has 7 electrons showing, how many more does it need to fill its outer shell? 1
If an electron dot figure has 5 electrons showing, how many more does it need to fill its outer shell? 3
How are electrons in an atom organized? energy levels
What is the same within each group on the periodic table? valence electrons
Why don’t noble gases normally form chemical bonds? They have full outermost energy levels.
What is the charge of a sodium ion with 11 protons and 10 electrons? +1
What is the charge of a chlorine ion with 11 protons and electrons? -1
What is the name of the bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another? ionic
What term regarding electrons immediately makes one think of COVALENT bonds? share
T C A G C C A C C T A T G G A can code for how many amino acids? 5
G C C A C C T A T G G A can code for how many amino acids 4
T C A G C C A C C T A T G G A T T T can code for how many amino acids 6
G G G can code for how many amino acids? 1
A A A T T T C C C can code for how many amino acids? 3
What shape does DNA take in a cell that lacks a nucleus? loose loops
Who proposed the DNA model currently nearly universally accepted? Watson & Crick
What is the term for a chemical substance which can change color in response to changes in pH ? indicator
The fact that a chemical exhibits the property of 'high solubility' means WHAT? it readily dissolves in water
When balancing equations, what is the only thing that you are permitted to change? coefficients
Using DNA to identify who committed a crime is called WHAT? DNA Fingerprinting
How many different subunits can be found within a DNA molecule? 4
What word describes the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom ? valence
What are the charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons are referred to as? ions
What is the manipulation of individual genes within organisms by scientists called? genetic engineering
What does a catalyst do? lowers activation energy of a reaction
How many atoms are represented in the formula CaCO3? 5
How many atoms are represented in the formula H20? 3
How many atoms are represented in the formula NaCl? 2
How many atoms are represented in the formula NaSO4? 6
Na2(SO4)2 12
What is the material shaped like a double helix that determines inherited characteristics ? DNA
A nucleotide is to a nucleic acid as an amino acid is to a WHAT? Protein
mRNA and tRNA meet to make proteins at what organelle? ribosome
chromosomes are found in what organelle? nucleus
A mutation where one base is replaced by another base is termed WHAT? substitution
A mutation where one base is omitted completely is termed a WHAT? deletion
What is the term for making RNA off of the DNA? transcription
What is the term for converting the 'nucleic acid language' into the 'protein language', which is effectively done by the tRNA? translation
What does the tRNA do with amino acids? transfers them to ribosomes
Created by: schneiderw11



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