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Chemistry vocab

concentrated solution a solution that contains a large amount of solvent.
colligative properties a property that demands only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identity.
dilute solution a solution that contains a small amount of solute.
Henry's Law states that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid.
miscible if two liquids dissolve in each other in all proportions.
immiscible when two liquids are insoluble in one another.
molarity the number of moles of a solute dissolved in one liter of a solution.
molality the number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 kilogram of solvent.
solubility the amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of a solvent at a specified temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution.
supersaturated contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
unsaturated a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure.
saturated contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure.
aqueous solution water that contains dissolved substances.
Brownian motion the chaotic movement of colloidal particles.
colloid a heterogeneous mixture containing particles that range in size from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
electrolyte a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in a molten state.
emulsion a colloidal dispersion of a liquid in a liquid.
hydrate a compound that contains water of hydration.
non-electrolyte a compound that does not conduct an electric current in either an aqueous solution or the molten state.
solute dissolved particles in a solution.
solvation the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules.
solvent the dissolving medium in a solution.
surfactant any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension.
suspension a mixture from which particles settle about standing.
surface tension the inward force, or pull, that tends to minimize the surface area of liquid.
Tyndall effect the scattering of visible light by colloidal particles
Avagadro's hypothesis states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
Avagadro's number 6.02x10to23
empirical formula gives the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound.
molecular formula a chemical formula of a molecular compound that shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound
mole 6.02x10to23 representative particles of a substance.
molar mass the mass of a mole of an element.
molar volume the amount of space a mole of a substance takes up.
standard temperature and pressure (STP) means a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 101.3 kPA or I atmosphere (atm).
density units g/ L
activity series A list of elements in order of decreasing activity.
catalyst A substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier; the catalyst is not used up in the reaction.
coefficients A small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation.
balanced chemical equation A chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element.
combination reaction A chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance; also called a synthesis reaction.
combustion reaction A chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light.
decomposition reaction A chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products.
double replacement reaction A chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds.
single replacement reaction A chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products.
reactant a substance present at the start of a reaction
product a substance produced in a chemical equation
spectator ion An ion that is not directly involved in a chemical reaction; an ion that does not change oxidation number or composition during a reaction.
net ionic equation An equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
actual yield the amount of product that forms when a reaction is carried out in the labratory
theoretical yield the amount of product that could form during a reaction calculated form a balanced chemical equation; it represents the maximum amount of product that could be formed from a given amount of reactant
excess reagent a reagent present in a quantity that is more than sufficient to react with a limiting reagent is used up in a chemical reaction
limiting reagent any reactant that is used up first in chemical reaction; it determines the amount of product that can be formed in the reaction
allotrope two or more different molecular forms of the same element
atmospheric pressure results from the collisions of atoms and molecules in air with objects
barometer a tool used to measure atmospheric pressure
boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure of the liquid
crystal particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice
evaporation the conversion of a liquid to a gas on the surface of a none boiling liquid
vaporization the conversion of a liquid to a gas
kinetic energy the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic theory all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion. The particles in a gas are usually molecules or atoms. applies to the fundamental assumptions about gases
melting point the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid
normal boiling point the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa
phase diagram a graph that shows the relationship among the solid, liquid, and vapor states of a substance in a sealed container
sublimation the change of a substance from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid state
triple point a point on phase diagram at which conditions of all three phases can exist in equilibrium with one another
unit cell the smallest group of particles within a crystal that exhibit geometric shape of the crystal
vacuum an empty space with no particles and no pressure
vapor pressure a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid
diffusion the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout.
effusion a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
partial pressure the contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure
compressibility a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
Boyle's law states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure
Charle's law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportion to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant
Dalton's law of partial pressures states that, at a constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sume of the partial pressures of the component gas
Gay-Lussacs law states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant
Graham's law of effusion states that rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar mass
endothermic process absorbs heat from its surroundings
enthalpy the heat content of a system at constant pressure
exothermic process releases heat to its surrounding
molar heat of fusion the heat absorbed by one mole of a solid substance as it melts to a liquid at a constant temperature
system the part of the universe on which you focus your attention
surroundings include everything else in the universe
acidic solution one in which H+ is greater than OH-
alkaline solution basic solutions
amphoteric substance that can act as both an acid and a base
conjugate acid the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
conjugate base the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen
neutral solution an aqueous solution in which H+ and OH- are equal
neutralization reactions in which an acid and base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
ph the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration
Created by: wileyhunsaker