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Electrochemical cell

AQA A-level inorganic chemistry electrode potentials year 13

3 main types of commercial battery Rechargeable, non-rechargeable, and fuel cells
Zinc-carbon (Daniell) cell: type, composition, reaction, notation Non-rechargeable Carbon cathode, manganese oxide, moist ammonium chloride paste, zinc anode 2NH3 + 2MnO2 + Zn + 2H+ — Mn2O3 + H2O + Zn(NH3)2,2+ Zn(s)/Zn(NH3)2,2+(aq)//MnO2(s),Mn2O3(s)/C(s)
Where there may be a phase change notation between some substances in the same phase In the case of an electrode being the same phase (solid) as an electrolyte there will be a phase change notation (e.g., Mn2O3(s)/C(s)) or even (Zn(s)/ZnO(s))
What happens when non-rechargeable batteries run out of charge Chemicals in reaction are used up until no more reactants remain & the overall cell emf = 0
Alkaline battery cell: type, composition, reaction, notation Non-rechargeable Carbon cathode, manganese oxide, potassium hydroxide, zinc ions & anode 2MnO2 + 2H2O + Zn — 2MnO(OH) + 2OH- + Zn2+ Zn(s)/Zn2+(aq)//MnO2(s), MnO(OH)(s)/C(s)
How rechargeable batteries work By reversing the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode, equilibrium reverses itself causing the materials to revert to their starting compositions
Lithium ion battery: type, composition, reaction, notation Rechargeable (most common in phones) Carbon cathode, lithium salt, lithium cobalt anode Li + Li(+) + CoO2 — Li+ + LiCoO2 LiCoO2(s)/CoO2-(aq)//Li+(aq)/Li(s)
Lead-acid battery: type, composition, reaction, notation Rechargeable (sealed car battery, 6 cells, 12V) Lead grids, sulphuric acid, spongy lead oxide layers Pb + PbO2 + 2H(+) + 2HSO4(-) — 2H2O + 2PbSO4 Pb(s)/PbSO4(aq),H+(aq)//HSO4-(aq)/PbO2(s)
Nickel-cadmium cell: type, composition, reaction, notation Rechargeable Nickel(III) hydroxide cathode, porous separator soaked in potassium hydroxide, & cadmium anode Cd + 2NiO(OH) + 2H2O — 2Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2 NiO(OH)(s)/Ni(OH)2(aq),OH-(aq)//Cd(OH)2(aq)/Cd(s)
How fuel cells work (& overall equation) Energy isn’t stored in the cell itself from redox reactions but rather is released continuously from its reactants. Commonly uses hydrogen-oxygen in either acidic or alkaline conditions Always follows equation: 2H2 + O2 — 2H2O
Acidic hydrogen-oxygen cell Anode splits hydrogen gas to protons & electrons, e- is moved between electrodes through a wire. Protons move through acidic electrolyte to cathode where they combine with oxygen & electrons O2 + 4H+ + 4e- — 2H2O
Alkaline hydrogen-oxygen cell Hydrogen gas reacts with the hydroxide ions to produce water & electrons. Electrons react with oxygen & water to form hydroxide ions 2H2 + 4OH- — 2H2O + 4e- 2H2O + O2 + 4e- — 4OH-
Advantages of non-rechargeable cells Longer shelf-life/lower self-discharge, higher energy density, lower initial cost
Disadvantages of non-rechargeable batteries Single-use (costs more over time), environmental impact, limited life-span, risk of leakage
Advantages of rechargeable batteries Saves overall expense, better for environment, has more longterm use, more useful for high drain appliances such as cars
Disadvantages of rechargeable batteries Energy used to recharge it may not be environmentally friendly, higher self-discharge rate, higher initial cost, requires a charger as well as power source & time to charge
Advantages of fuel cells Higher efficiency, renewable energy source, produces water as waste product, better for environment in terms of compositional materials
Disadvantages of fuel cells High cost, limited hydrogen availability, if hydrogen comes from electrolysis then energy required can come from fossil fuels, difficulty storing & safety concerns
Created by: Study_B
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