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Module XII

Chemistry of the Remaining Representative Elements

Natural occurrence of Sodium Seawater
Preparation of Sodium Electrolysis of NaCl (Downs Cell)
Use of Sodium Preparation of Titanium TiCl4 + Na => Ti + NaCl
Products of Na + NH3 Na + NH3 => Na(+) + H2 + NH2(+)
Preparation of Sodium Hydride 2Na + H2 => 2NaH
Used in paper industry to dissolve wood chips (Kraft process) Na2SO4
Solvay Process CO2 + NH3 + NaCl + H2O => NaHCO3 (baking soda) + NH4Cl NaHCO3 => Na2CO3(soda ash) + H20 + CO2
Natural occurrence of magnesium seawater
Extraction of magnesium hydroxide from seawater CaCO3 (shells) =heat=> CaO (quicklime) + CO2 CaO + H2O =slaking=> Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 + MgCl2 => Mg(OH)2 + CaCl2
Use of magnesium hydroxide Milk of magnesia - stomachaches
Preparation of Magnesium from magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 + HCl => MgCl2 + H2O MgCl2 =electric charge=> Mg + Cl2
Use of magnesium Light structural alloys
Grignard Reagents Mg + CH3Br => Br-Mg-CH3
Structure of MgO same as NaCl
Melting Point of MgO compared to NaCl Higher melting point than NaCl
Use of MgO Electric ranges: good conductor of heat, does not absorb bad conductor of electricity
Natural occurrence of Aluminum (Non-silicate) Al2O3 (Bauxite)
Creation of Ruby/Sapphire Replace some Al(+3) groups in Bauxite with transition metals
Natural occurrence of Aluminum (silicate) Beryl
Types Of silicates (3 types) mica, clay, talc
Al compared to Cu (volume) Cu is more conductive by volume
Al compared to Cu (mass) Al is more conductive by mass
Preparation of Al Hall-Heroult Process
Amphoteric Reaction of Aluminum (acid) 2Al + 6HCl => Al2Cl6 + 3H2
Amphoteric Reaction of Aluminum (base) 2Al + 6OH(-) => 2AlO3(-3) + 3H2
Structure of Al2Cl6 similar to diborane (banana bonds)
Aluminum Spinels M(2+)Al2O4
what are Ziegler-Natta Catalysts (2) TiCl4 and Al(C2H5)3
What does Ziegler-Natta system do? Polymerizes alkenes i.e. ethene -> polyethelene
Natural Occurrence of Silicon 26% of earth's crust
Preparation of silicon (98% pure) SiO2 + 2C => Si + 2CO (98% pure)
Preparation of Silicon (99.9% pure) Si + Cl2 => SiCl4 SiCl4 + Mg => MgCl2 + Si
Preparation of Silicon (99.9999% pure) zone refining
Structure of Quartz and name Repeating tetrahedron of Silicon surrounded by oxygens (SiO2)n
Zircon ZrSiO4
Impure forms of quartz gems (amethyst, opal)
Structure of Si2O7(-6) Two tetrahedrons of Si joined by a shared oxygen (corner sharing)
Structure of Benitoite & atoms shared Ring of alternating silicon and oxygen; 2 atoms shared per tetrahedron Si3O9(-)
Structure of beryl & # of oxygen atoms shared ring of six tetrahedra with six shared oxygen atoms
Shared atoms for chains of silicon 2 atoms shared per tetrahedron
Structure of double chain (asbestos) (Si4O11)n(-6n)
structure of single chain (SiO3)n(-2n)
Structure of silicon sheets (talc) (Si2O5)n (-2n)
Shared atoms for silicon sheets (talc) 3 atoms shared per tetrahedron
Creation of Mica Replace 1/4 of Si(3+) in talc with Al(3+)
Shared atoms for 3-D silicates 4 atoms shared per tetrahedron
Formation of SiF4 HF attacks SiO2 ONLY
What 3 halides hydrolize to SiO2 + HX? SiCl4, SiBr4, SiI4
List 4 known silicon hydrides SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si4H10
Preparation of silicon hydrides SiCl4 + LiAlH4 => SiH4 + LiCl + (AlCl3)2
Structure of Silicon Carbide SiC Connected tetrahedrons of C and Si, respectively surrounded by each other
Preparation of Silicon carbide SiO2 + 3C => SiC + 2CO
preparation of silicones Si + CH3Cl => (CH3)2SiCl2 (CH3)2SiCl2 + H20 => [(CH3)2SiO]n + HCl
Structure of silicones Bent chain of O and Si, 2 branching R groups off of silicons
Silicone oil links no crosslinks
silicone rubber links a few cross links
silicone resins more crosslinks
Natural occurrence of phosphate & structure phosphate rock Ca3(PO4)2
Use of phosphate rock fertilizer
Occurrence of phosphate in humans ATP
Preparation of phosphate 2Ca3(PO4)2 + 10C + 6SiO2 => 6CaSiO3(slag) + 10CO + P4
Oxide of P4 with limited O2 H3PO3
oxide of P4 with excess O2 H3PO4
natural occurrence of sulfur free-gulf coast in form of sulfides
pyrite FeS2
galena PbS
bornite Cu3FeS3
zinc blende ZnS
occurrence of sulfur in humans amino acids, protein
Frasch process molten sulfur deposits
natural form of sulfur S8 (overlapping squares)
Use of Gallium Semiconductor (GaAs)
Property of gallium longest liquid range of any element (30-2403 C)
Use of Indium photovoltaic cells
Use of Thallium Heavy metal poison (Tl2O)
Use of Germanium Semi-conductor
Preparation of tin SnO2(cassiterite) + 2C => Sr + CO2
Composition of bronze 20% tin, 80% copper
Composition of solder 50% tin, 50% lead
Tin cans Steel coated with tin
Octane-boosting additive to gasoline Pb(CH2CH3)4
Marsh Test H2 + H3AsO4 => AsH3 + H20 determines if arsenic is present
Use of Antimony Hardens lead in storage batteries
Property of bismuth expands on freezing
Wood's metal (Bi) Used as plug in sprinkler systems
Use of bismuth Pepto bismol (BiO)2CO3
Use of selenium red color in glass (red lights)
Use of selenium on humans trace amounts are anti-carcinogenic
Property of tellurium H2Te is worst smelling inorganic compound
property of bromine liquid at room temperature
natural occurrence of bromine seawater Cl2 + Br(-) => 2Cl(-) + Br2
use of iodine on humans thyroxine - growth hormone
heat S8 rapidly sulfur rings
heat S8 slowly monoclinic
heat monoclinic sulfur S8 rings
heat liquid sulfur liquid darkens
heat dark brown liquid sulfur S2 gas
natural occurrence of chlorine As NaCl
Use of chlorine treatment of drinking water
preparation of chlorine (commercial) Electrolysis of NaCl
preparation of chlorine (lab) HCl + MnO2 => Mn(2+) + Cl2 + H20
chlorine hydride HCl (strong acid)
main use of potassium gunpowder
products of K+ and NH3 ammoniated K+ + e-
use of rubidium "getter" in vacuum tubes
property of cesium melts at 30 degrees celcius
natural occurrence of calcium silicates, carbonates(marble, chalk, limestone, calcite), phosphates
calcium in nature plats, bones, teeth
use of calcium glass, bricks, porcelain
use of strontium flames, fireworks
use of barium lithopone pigment BaSO4
Created by: neeck