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A & P test

The first motor neuron in an autonomic pathway is called preganglionic neuron
The part of the nervous system that regulates smooth muscle is the autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also referred to as the thoracolumbar division
Sympathetic fibers originate in the spinal cord
The ____ nervous system only contains all sensory neurons and all voluntary motor neurons somatic
In the autonomic nervous system there are __ neurons between the CNS and the visceral effector 2
the preganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system release acethylcholine
Preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS synapse with the terminal ganglia
Sympathetic postgangionic neurons release norepinephrine
The neurotransmitter of postganglionic fibers in the sympathetic division is norepinephrine
The neurotransmitter of the postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic division is acetylcholine
Impulses for one division of the ANS stimulates an organ's activity while the other division inhibits the organ's activity. This is called dual innervation
The sympathetic division of the ANS increases the activities of the heart
Somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine
The autonomic nervous system operates without conscious control
The portion of the nervous system regulating smooth muscle activity is the autonomic nervous system
The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is regulated by the hypothalamus
Responsible for skeletal muscle activity somatic nervous system
The divisions of the autonomic nervous system are called sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
The somatic and autonomic nervous system make up the __ nervous system peripheral
A sympathetic response a breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
The ganglia which lie on either side of the backbone are the sympathetic trunk ganglia
Insulin secretion is promoted by the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
The adrenal glands produce epinephrine and norepinephrine to intensify and prolong __effects sympathetic
Acetylcholine is inactivated by acetylcholinesterase
The acronym "SLUDD" deals with paradoxical fear and parasympathetic tone
Excessive contraction of arterioles within the fingers and toes due to prolonged sympathetic stimulation can be Raynaud's disease
The parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate, respiratory rate, pupil size, and air pathway diameter
The effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on the eye is to constrict the pupil
Mind body exercise refers to tai chi, martial arts, Hatha yoga, internal directed focus
The most important thing in mind body exercise is openness to physical and emotional sensaations
Autonomic literally means self law
Homer's Syndrome is caused by a loss of sympathetic control to one side
An abnormally large colon caused by improperly developed parasympathetic neurons is called a megacolon
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system are the __ and __ divisions sympathetic; parasympathetic
Autonomic fibers can also be called visceral motor fibers
The sympathetic division is also called __ division thoracolumbar
The celiac ganglion is a __ ganglion sympathetic
The part of the nervous system that regulates smooth and cardiac muscle is the __ nervous system autonomic
Cholinergic fibers, like the preganglionic fibers, release __ acetylcholine
The enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine is __ acetylcholinesterase
Synapses between autonomic neurons and their effectors are called __ junctions neuroeffector
The dilation of bronchioles is due to __ activity sympathetic
The somatic nervous system is under __ control voluntary
The neurotransmitter is all preganglionic fibers is __ acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter of the sympathetic postganglionic fibers is __ norepinephrine
The __ division of the ANS stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion sympathetic
The __ division of the ANS inhibits digestion sympathetic
All the axons of the ANS are __ fibers motor
Organs that receive impulses from both divisions of the ANS have __ dual innervation
Synapses of visceral motor fibers occur in __ autonomic ganglia
Long preganglionic fibers belong to the __ division parasympathetic
Parasympathetic impulses __ the rate of the heartbeat decrease
During extreme stress the __ division dominates the __ division sympathetic; parasympathetic
The division that conserves and restores the body's energy is the __ division parasympathetic
The acronym helpful in remembering five responses that occur when parasympathetic tone rises is "__" SLUDD
The autonomic nervous system does the following regulates the size of the pupils, consists of two subdivisions, regulates visceral activities, and is an involuntary system
Autonomic ganglia includes sympathetic trunk ganglia, prevertebral ganglia, and terminal ganglia
Control of the autonomic nervous system is done by the cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, brain stem, and hypothalamus
Visceral effectors include cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and grandular epithelium
Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system use acetylocholine as the first neurotransmitter
Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are myelinated, leave the spinal cord through the anterior root, synapse with many postganglionic cell bodies, and use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter
Sympathetic nervous system has sympathetic trunk ganglia, speeds up the heart and respiratory rates, and uses epinephrine as a neurotransmitter
Fight-or-flight responses include increase of heart rate, increase in blood pressure, dilation of the bronchioles, and decrease of digestive secretions
Effects of the parasympathetic division include conserving and restoring of body energy, promoting digestion, and increase in bile secretion
The simplest sensory receptors are free nerve endings
A decrease sensitivity that occurs when a stimulus is continuously applied to sensory receptors is called adaptation
The group of somatic senses include touch, temperature, and pressure receptors, and proprioceptors
Somatic sensations include touch, pressure, temperature, and vibration
Mechanoreceptors include hair root plexuses, Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, and organs of Ruffini
Touch receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors
The sense that falls under the category of complex receptors taste
True or False: The hypothalamus receives input from areas of the nervous system concerned with emotions TRUE
T/F The autonomic nervous system innervates the skeletal muscles FALSE - the somatic nervous system
T/F The parasympathetic division of the ANS originates in the brain and the spinal cord TRUE
T/F The sympathetic division is involved with energy expenditure TRUE
T/F Fear stimulates the parasympathetic division of the ANS FALSE - sympathetic division
T/F The dilation of pupils is an autonomic response TRUE
T/F All preganglionic fibers of the ANS are cholinergic TRUE
T/F Terminal ganglia are sympathetic ganglia FALSE - parasympathetic
T/F Parasympathetic ganglia are near or within visceral effectors TRUE
T/F Parasympathetic stimulation increases sweat secretion FALSE - generally decreases, but really has no effect
T/F The parasympathetic nervous only originates from the cranial nerves FALSE - AKA crainosacral - originates from both the cranial nerve nuclei and sacral segments
T/F The parasympathetic nervous system has long preganglionic axons and short postganglionic axons TRUE
T/F Because of its connection to "flight or fight," increased sympathetic stimulation is connected to stress responses TRUE
T/F The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body or the "fight-or-flight" response FALSE - sympathetic
T/F Pre- and postganglionic fibers are present in the somatic nervous system FALSE - autonomic
T/F Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions have neurons leading to to the effectors which use two different neurotransmitters FALSE - they all release acetylcholine and sympathetic post release norepinephrine
T/F The effects of adrenal medulla are linked to the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system FALSE - sympathetic
T/F Horner's syndrome causes a megacolon FALSE - just doesn't happen - Horners is a sympathetic and megacolon is a parasympathetic
T/F Learning relaxation and stress reduction skills can reduce the harmful effects of stress on the body TRUE
T/F The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system relaxes the ciliary muscle of the eye to allow for far vision TRUE
T/F Autonomic dysreflexia is related to spinal cord injury and the sympathetic nervous system TRUE
T/F Instead of exercise to tone up muscle or hearts, some people use mind body exercise to tone up their parasympathetic nervous system TRUE
Neurotransmitters of ANS releases both acetylcholine and norepinephrine
Decreases heart rate parasympathetic
Increase digestion parasympathetic
Stimulates renin secretion sympathetic
dilation of pupils sympathetic
stimulates salivary gland secretion parasympathetic
inhibits gastric gland secretion sympathetic
increase respiratory rate sympathetic
erection of hairs sympathetic
promotes gastric gland secretion parasympathetic
constricts pupils parasympathetic
pressure receptors, which are located around joints, tendons, and muscles are Pacinian corpuscles
the sensation of itch results from the stimulation of free nerve endings
a kind of pain often experienced by people suffering a heart attack is called referred pain
the sense of muscle activity is called proprioception
muscle spindles are examples of proprioceptors
olfactory receptors adapt, have knob-shaped dendrites, located in the nasal cavity, and are stimulated by gaseous particles
areas of the brain involved in olfaction temporal lobe, hypothalamus, and limbic system
taste receptors are called gustatory receptors
the region that is most sensitive to bitter taste is the back of the tounge
the cranial nerves involved in the gustatory pathway are the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus
the immediate structure leading tears away from the lacrimal glands is/are the lacrimal ducts
the bactericidal enzymes present in tears are lysozyme
the "white" of the eye is called sclera
the muscle responsible for the change of the shape of the lens is the ciliary muscle
the __ belongs to the vascular tunic of the eye iris
the layer that contains photoreceptors is the retina
the area concerning the highest concentration of cones is the central fovea
the clear jellylike substance behind the lens of the eye is the vitreous humor
the bending of light that happens at the cornea and lens is refraction
the inability to clearly see near objects is called hypermetropia
the "canal of Schlemm" is another term for the scleral venous sinus
the photopigment in rods is rhodopsin
forms the optic nerve ganglion cells
the external ear has auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, and ceruminous glands
the middle ear has ossicles
the middle party of the bony labrynith is the vestibule
located between the cochlear duct and the scala vestibuli is the vestibular membrane
the center of the eardrum is connected to the malleus
the receptors for hearing are located in the cochlea
the senses for dynamic equilibrium are located in the semicircular ducts
the abnormally high intraocular pressure is referred to as glaucoma
the most common cause of blindness in the United States is glaucoma
"pinkeye" is the common term for conjunctivitis
if you enter a room and smell a strong odor, which seems to soon fade away, you have experienced sensory adaptation
when you sniff to help you detect or identify odors, you are forcing air to the top of the nasal cavity where the chemoreceptors are located
the sense of balance that tell you "where your head is at" when you are not moving is called __ equilibrium and is a function of the __ in the inner ear static & utricle and saccule
the function of the extrinsic eye muscles are to roll eyes after taking a particularly awful test
abnormal in someone who is unable to see in low light (night blind) rods
the ossicles of the ear are responsible for sound conduction and amplification
accommodation involves change the shape of the lens
changes vibrations to nerve impulses cochlea and Organ of Corti
referred pain occurs because of shared pathways between visceral organs and body surfaces
Uses mechanoreceptors hearing, touch, pressure, and proprioceptors
pain that persist for at least two months without responding to appropriate treatment is chronic pain
relaxation and meditation are used to control pain because it distracts the patient, decreases anxiety, persons gain a sense of personal control, and certain thoughts and situations can reduce pain
a ringing in the ears is scientifically referred to as tinnitus
the greatest single cause of blindness in the world is trachoma
T/F Muscle spindles are found at the junction of a tendon with a muscle FALSE - in the length of the muscle
T/F Equilibrium is classified as a special sense TRUE
T/F Tactile receptor consist of the axons of sensory neurons FALSE - free nerve endings and mechanoreceptors
T/F Type I touch are very quick to adapt to a touch sensation FALSE - slow to adapt
T/F Themoreceptors are free nerve endings TRUE
T/F Pain is essential because it protects us from greater damage TRUE
T/F The highest concentration of taste buds is found in filiform papillae FALSE - filiform papillae has no tastebuds
T/F The adult eyeball measures about 3.5 cm in diameter FALSE - 2.5 cm
T/F The middle layer of the eyeball is the vascular tunic TRUE
T/F Cones are specialized for color vision TRUE
T/F Night blindness is most often caused by a vitamin C deficiency FALSE - vitamin A
T/F Some fibers of the optic nerve cross in the optic tract FALSE - optic chiasm
T/F The middle ear is a small air-filled cavity between the eardrum and the internal ear TRUE
T/F The walls of the utricle contain a small, flat region called macula TRUE
T/F Almost any excessive sensation such as loud noise, can cause the sensation of pain. TRUE
T/F Sensation of senses actually occurs in the brain. In other words, perception occurs when the brain interprets what the electrical impulse from the receptor is trying to tell it TRUE
T/F Sound is conducted through air, bone and fluid before it is changed to electrical impulses in the inner ear. TRUE
T/F The middle tunic of the eye consists of the choroids coat, cornea, lens and ciliary body FALSE - does not have the cornea which is located in the fibrous tunic
T/F When the ciliary muscle contracts, the lens flattens for far vision FALSE - muscle relaxes
T/F The muscles of the iris and ciliary muscle are considered to be extrinsic eye muscles because they are voluntary FALSE - intrinsic
T/F People with chronic pain tend to avoid movement and exercise TRUE
T/F Pain is now considered to have both a physical and psychological factors TRUE
T/F A loss of transparency of the lens is known as cataracts TRUE
T/F A total lack of the sense of smell is called anosmia TRUE
T/F Conduction deafness is caused by damage to chochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve FALSE - sensorineural
a __ must convert a stimulus to an electrical signal sensory receptor
the small area of the retina, which does not contain photoreceptors but the optic nerve, is the optic disc
receptors that detect pressure or stretching are collectively called mechanoreceptors
the conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal conditions of the body is a(n) sensation
conscious sensations are integrated in the cerebral cortex
the ability to recognize which point of the body is touched is referred to as a tactile sensation
receptors for pain are called nociceptors
receptors for taste are called __ receptors. gustatory
the __ gland produces tears lacrimal
the colored portion of the eyeball is the iris
a loss of transparency of the lens is known as cataract
the ability of the lens to change its curvature is called accommodation
images that focus upside down on the retina are called __ images inverted
the receptors for color vision and bright light are conese
glands produce earwax ceruminous
the bony labyrinth contains fluid called the perilymph
the organ of hearing is the Organ of Corti (spiral organ)
the balance and posture of the body without movement of the head is called static equilibrium
an inflammation of the conjunctiva is called conjunctivitis
the opening of a taste bud is the taste pore
the hole in the center of the iris is the pupil
the pressure in the eye that is mainly produced by the aqueous humor is the intraocular pressure
the thin membrane between the external auditory canal and the ossicles is the tympanic membrane
the greater the frequency of sound the higher the pitch
a type of receptor that provides information about the mechanical energy is called a(n) mechanoreceptor
acute bacterial infection of the middle ear otitis media
disorder brought on by motion motion sickness
inflammation of the eyelid blepharitis
inflammation of the auditory tube eustachitis
inflammation of the inner ear labyrinthitis
rapid involuntary movement of the eyeballs mystagmus
dilated pupil mydriasis
ringing in the ears tinnitus
change in the environment capable of activating sensory neurons stimulus
receptors of pain nociceptors
pain in the skin overlying the stimulated organ referred pain
lining of the eyelid conjunctiva
responsible for night vision rods
responsible for dynamic equilibrium semicircular ducts
corpuscles of touch Meissner's corpuscles
help induce inflammation prostaglandins
controls general body growth and metabolism hGH
stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH
stimulates the development of the ovarian follicles FSH
initiates and maintains milk production by the mammary glands prolactin
decreases urine volume ADH
contains iodine thyroid hormone
are anti-inflammatory compounds glucocorticoids
secreted by alpha cells glucagon
secreted by the pineal gland melatonin
the adrenal gland is composed of the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex
thyroid hormones regulate growth and development, the activity of the nervous system, and metabolism
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are produced in cells of the hypothalamus
hormones that influence other endocrine glands are called __ hormones tropic
enlarged thyroid gland is called goiter
oversecretion of hGH during childhood results in giantism
the conversion of glucose into glycogen is accelerated by insulin
the endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
mineralcorticoids are produced in the adrenal cortex
the two principal hormones of the adrenal medulla are __ and __ epinephrine and norepinephrine
the class of adrenal cortex hormones that deals with metabolism and resistance to stress are glucocorticoids
The __ glands are found in the thyroid gland parathyroid
he inhibition of bone breakdown is the function of calcitonin
the receptors in the hypothalamus that detect low water concentration in the blood are osmoreceptors
the release of milk by the mammary glands depends on the hormone ocytocin
the formation of corpus luteum is stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH)
the production and secretion of thyroid hormone is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
hormones that can enter the plasma membrane without a receptor are __ hormones lipid-soluble
calcitriol is a hormone of the kidneys
the production of oocytes by the ovaries is stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
the hypothalamus controls the activity of the anterior pituitary by way of releasing and inhibiting hormones
hormones pass from secretory cells into the __ fluid and then into the blood and are called circulating hormones interstitial
the endocrine system releases messenger molecules called hormones
the science concerned with the endocrine system is called endocrinology
T/F Benign tumors of the adrenal medulla are called pheochromocytomas TRUE
T/F Ovaries decrease in size with age and are less responsive to gonadotropins which causes a decrease in estrogen leading to increased susceptibility to osteoporosis. TRUE
T/F The pancreas releases insulin more quickly as a person ages and so blood glucose levels rise more slowly in the elderly FALSE - releases more slowly; blood glucose levels rise faster
T/F If the resistance stage of the stress response fails to combat the stressor exhaustion may ensue TRUE
T/F The thymus gland is largest in infancy and is replaced by adipose and connective tissue and the person ages TRUE
T/F Any stimulus that produces a stress response is called a stressor TRUE
T/F Steroid hormones act by binding to a protein receptor on the cell membrane of their target cell FALSE - water-soluble hormones
T/F A player in the NBA would benefit from an injection of GH FALSE - they have too much hGH; short person needs hGH
T/F The hypothalamus controls secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland by nervous impulses FALSE - by neurosecretory cells
T/F Androgens are hormones secreted by the male endocrine system only FALSE - in both males and females
T/F The renin-angiotensin pathway is involved in the control of aldosterone secretion TRUE
T/F Calcitonin is a hormone of the parathyroid gland FALSE - produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid
T/F Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion resulting in an increased urine output TRUE
T/F Vasopressin is another name for antidiuretic hormone TRUE
T/F FSH stimulates the testis to produce testosterone FALSE - LH; FSH is sperm production
T/F Hormones of the hypothalamus control the release of human growth hormone from the anterior pituitary TRUE
T/F Prolactin is a hormone involved in the initiation of milk production in the mammary glands TRUE
T/F Some glands produce hormones in response to a signal from the autonomic nervous system TRUE
T/F Cells of the posterior pituitary produce vasopressin FALSE - posterior pituitary only stores and releases
T/F Hormone secretion is primarily regulated by negative feedback mechanisms TRUE
T/F Most peptide and protein hormones diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer to get into a target cell FALSE - peptide and protein hormones are water-soluble which attaches to receptors on the cell membrane
T/F Steroid hormones are derivatives of cholesterol TRUE
T/F Hormones do not regulate the activity of the immune system FALSE - regulates some immune system activities
T/F The nervous system and the endocrine system regulate homeostasis TRUE
a cluster of disorders including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol and abdominal fat is called: metabolic syndrome
abdominal fat is riskier that other adipose tissue because: fat cells in abdominal regions are more metabolically active and responsive to hormones
condition in which insulin receptors do not respond to properly to insulin is called: insulin resistance
as we age the following occurs some endocrine glands shrink, production of human growth hormone decreases, muscles atrophy, and body fat increases
the hypothalamus, sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medullae all initiate __ in response to stress: fight or flight response
under normal circumstances, individuals do not produce too much thyroxine because it is under negative feedback control
an adult who over secretes GH doesn’t get taller. Why not? epiphyseal plates are closed in adults
insulin is secreted by the pancreas after a meal in order to decrease the concentration of blood glucose
glucagon is produced in the __ cells of the __ alpha, pancreas
which hormone stimulates cells to grow and divide? growth hormone
the activities of the adrenal cortex are controlled by ACTH
hormone secretion is controlled by nerve impulses, circulating chemicals, releasing hormones, and inhibiting hormones
cells that respond to a particular hormone are called target cells
a decline in the number of pancreatic beta cells is characteristic for type I diabetes
Cushing's syndrome is due to an oversecretion of glucocorticoids
insufficient ADH release causes diabetes insipidus
oversecretion of hGH during childhood is called giantism
the second stage of the stress response is the resistance reaction
prostaglandins act as local hormones, help induce inflammation, and are important in fat metabolism
melatonin is a hormone of the pineal gland
FSH secretion is inhibited by inhibin
the development and maintenance of the female sex characteristics is the responsibility of progesterone and estrogen
glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen into glucose
insulin is secreted by beta cells
the gland which can be classified as an endocrine and exocrine gland is the pancreas
hormones responsible for the fight-or-flight response epinephrine and norepinephrine
the endocrine gland that is directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system adrenal medulla
glucocorticoids are steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland
mineralcorticoids are produced in the adrenal cortex, steroid hormones, and help regulate the homeostasis of sodium and potassium
the hormone that inhibits the action of osteoclasts is calcitonin
the hormone released in response to low blood calcium levels is parathyroid hormone
Cells that produces thyroxine follicular cells
calcitonin is a hormone of the thyroid gland
the hormone that controls the production and release of glucocorticoids ACTH
the hormone which is released in large quantities just before childbirth is oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are produced by the hypothalamus
the hormones that neurosecretory cells produce antidiuretic hormone
the hormones released in response to releasing hormones thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), human growth hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin
insulinlike growth factor is released in response to human growth hormone (hGH)
hormones that are released in response to hypoglycemia GH
hormone which effects skin pigmentation is MSH
hormones of the anterior pituitary hGH, FSH, prolactin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
hormones is released in response to a nerve impulse epinephrine
hormones that stimulates testosterone production by the testis LH
pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
hormone that under certain circumstances is regulated by positive feedback is oxytocin
hormones regulating blood calcium levels are PTH and calcitonin
hormones that bind to receptors within the target cells are lipid soluble
second messenger in the action of many water-soluble hormones such as peptides is cAMP
organs that contain hormone producing cells stomach, liver, and skin
endocrine glands include adrenal, parathyroid, pineal, and pituitary
systems that work closely with the endocrine system to coordinate the body’s functions nervous system
contain hemoglobin erythrocytes
release lysozyme neutrophils
produce antibodies lymphocytes
become wandering macrophages monocytes
release histaminase eosinophils
present in high numbers during parasitic infection eosinophils
known as mast cells basophils
caused by inadequate absorption or excessive loss of iron Iron-deficiency anemia
due to an insufficient production of erythrocytes Pernicious anemia
an excessive loss of erythrocytes through bleeding Hemolytic anemia
characterized by distortion in the shape of erythrocytes Hemolytic anemia
a result of the destruction or inhibition of red bond marrow Aplastic anemia
due to the production of abnormal hemoglobin Sickle-cell anemia
T/F Regular physical activity decreases plasma volume thus increasing clotting abilities when injured FALSE - increases volume
collective erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets are called the __ elements of blood formed
the branch of science concerned with the study of blood is called hematology
the three functions of blood are transportation, regulation, and protection
blood belongs to __ tissue connective
another name for globulins is antibodies
the process of blood cell formation is called hemopoiesis
the pigment that carries oxygen in red blood cells is hemoglobin
the protein portion of hemoglobin is globin
erythrocyte formation is called erythropoisis
surface proteins on nucleated cells that can be used to identify tissues for transplantation are major histocompatibility antigens
the function of platelets is blood clotting
when platelets accumulate and attach to each other they form a mass called the platelet plug
breaking of blood clot is called fibrinolysis
the surface of red blood cells contains antigens called antigens or agglutinogens
individuals with type A blood have __ antibodies in the plasma B
the Rh system of blood classification was first discovered in the blood of the Rhesus monkey
the hemolysis caused by fetal-maternal incompatibility is called erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of the newborn
a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood is reduced is called anemia
bleeding, either internal or external is referred to as hemorrhage
septicemia is the medical term for blood poisoning
the release of hemoglobin into the blood as a result of red blood cell rupture is called hemolysis
during blood clotting prothrombin is converted into the enzyme thrombin
plasma minus the clotting proteins is called serum
functions of the blood transportation, regulation, and protection
the blood volume of an averaged sized male is 5 to 6 liters
the pH range for blood is 7.35 – 7.45
the thin layer of white blood cells in centrifuged blood is called buffy coat
most of the plasma proteins are albumins
belongs to agranular leukocytes monocyte
cells that do NOT have a nucleus erythrocytes
the life span of red blood cells is 120 days
the pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen is hemoglobin
worn-out red blood cells are phagocytized in the liver, spleen, and red bone marrow
components of hemoglobin that can be reused by other cells for protein synthesis globin
cellular oxygen deficiency is called hypoxia
the first phagocytotic cells at the site of a bacterial invasion are neutrophils
an allergic condition or a parasite infection is often manifested in a high count of eosinophils
blood cells that can develop into "wandering macrophages monocytes
an increase in the number of white blood cells is called leukocytosis
abnormally low levels of white blood cells which may be caused by radiation is called leukopenia
how many platelets should appear in each μL of blood 150,000-400,000
the sequences that describes the steps in the formation of a platelet plug platelet adhesion, platelet release reaction, platelet aggregation
the process of clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis
stoppage of bleeding is called homeostasis
the threads of a blood clot are formed by fibrin
involved in blood clotting thrombin, calcium, fibrin, and prothrombinase
heredity deficiencies of coagulation is referred to as hemophilia
the enzyme responsible for breaking up a blood clot is plasmin
the anticoagulant produced by mast cells is heparin
a blood clot transported by the blood stream is a(n) embolus
a person with blood type A has A antigens on the red blood cells
an individual with which ABO blood type can theoretically donate blood to recipients of all ABO types type O
the damage to red blood cells due to incompatible blood transfusion is called hemolysis
small inappropriate blood clots inside of a blood vessel are dissolved in a process called fibrinolysis
insufficient production of erythrocytes due to lack of vitamin B12 is the cause for pericious anemia
the iron-containing portion of the hemoglobin molecule is heme
the hormone released by the kidney and is stimulating RBC production is erythropoietin
the ion, which is essential in the blood-clotting mechanism, is calcium
the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood is called the hematocrit
anemia may be caused by bleeding, lack of sufficient nutrients in the diet, and breakdown of RBC’s prematurely
contains hemoglobin erythrocytes
Dracula has the B agglutinin but not the A antigen, what blood type does he have O
any decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity whether caused by nutrition, bleeding or high altitude is called anemia
the most abundant blood cell in the body is the erythrocytes
an abnormal increase in the number of red cells is called polycemia
Sickle Cell Disease is an abnormal hemoglobin causing the RBC to bend
induced polycythemia is done by athletes to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, achieved by injecting Epoetin alfa, dangerous and increases blood pressure, and a cause of death from heart attacks or strokes
bone marrow transplants can be used to treat aplastic anemia – caused by abnormal RBM, Hodgkin’s disease, thalassemia, and sickle cell disesase
the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting is named because damaged tissues release a protein into the blood from outside the blood vessels
T/F All blood cells originate from pluripotent stem cells TRUE
T/F The kidney excretes bilirubin FALSE – the liver
T/F Neonatal anemia disappears as the kidney matures TRUE
T/F Leukocytes can be divided into three major groups FALSE – two major groups: granular or agranular
T/F Lymphocytes are the largest leukocytes FALSE - monocyte
T/F Monocytes that migrate to infected tissues are called wandering macrophages TRUE
T/F Inflammation causes an increase in the hematocrit FALSE – white blood cells
T/F Neutrophils are granulocytes TRUE
T/F Plasma proteins are confined to blood TRUE
T/F The extrinsic pathway of blood clotting is more complex than the intrinsic pathway FALSE – the intrinsic is more complex
T/F The breaking up of a blood clot is called clot retraction FALSE – fibrinolysis
T/F Blood clotting always results in the formation of embolus FALSE – can be thromosis
T/F Heparin is produced by mast cells TRUE
T/F A blood clot that is transported by the blood stream is called a thrombus FALSE - embolus
T/F Agglutinins are also called antibodies TRUE
T/F Cyanosis is caused by too many leukocytes in the blood FALSE – prolonged hypoxia – deficiency of oxygen
T/F The production of red blood cells is closely linked to the carbon dioxide carrying capacity of the blood. If this is low, the red bone marrow makes a hormone called erythroheparin to increase the number of RBC’s FALSE – oxygen carrying capacity
T/F Pluripotentent stem cells are special cells in the red bone marrow, which have the potential to become any of the seven formed elements TRUE
T/F Being type AB means you either have the A or B antigens but not both FALSE – AB will have both
T/F Plasma constitutes about 55% on the blood volume TRUE
T/F Mature erythrocytes can reproduce FALSE – cannot reproduce b/c of lack of nucleus
T/F In a bone marrow transport it is necessary to inject the new bone marrow into the bone FALSE – injected into the vein like blood
T/F At low doses, aspirin enhances vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation FALSE - inhibits
T/F In practice, the use of the terms universal recipient and universal donor in blood typing is misleading and dangerous TRUE
T/F Smoking increases blood fibrinogen levels which leads to an increased clotting risk TRUE
the outer portion of the pericardium is the fibrous pericardium
the layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the inside of the myocardium is called endocardium
cardiac muscle fibers are connected with each other by intercalated discs
the portion of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle tissue is the myocardium
portion of the heart has the thickest myocardium left ventricle
blood transported by the pulmonary veins returns to the left atrium
the muscular wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right wall because it pumps the blood to the entire body
the left ventricle pumps the blood into the ascending aorta
blood vessel that delivers blood to the right atrium vena cava
the blood vessel that carries blood highest in oxygen is the pulmonary vein
the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle is the bicuspid valve
the valve between the left ventricle and the blood vessel leaving the left ventricle is the aortic semilunar valve
the blood vessel that collects deoxygenated blood of the coronary circulation and empties into the right atrium is the coronary sinus
death of an area of cardiac tissue due to an interrupted blood supply is called myocardial infarction
the blood supply to the myocardial wall of the heart is supplied by the coronary arteries
the normal pacemaker of the heart is/are the sinoatrial node
the sequence of structures in the cardiac conduction system SA node, AV node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
the P wave of an ECG indicates atrial depolarization
atrial repolarization cannot be seen on the ECG because occurs during the ventricular repolarization
the correct order of ECG waves P, QRS, T
at rest each cardiac cycle lasts approximately __ seconds 0.8
the remaining 25% of the blood that fills the ventricles after the relaxation period occurs during atrial systole
closing of the AV valves produces the the first heart sound (lubb)
heart murmurs are usually the result of defective valves
the cardiac output is the milliliters of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle
the cardiovascular center is located in the medulla oblongata
causes an increase in the rate of the heartbeat norepinephrine
changes in the blood pressure are detected by baroreceptors
impulses carried by means of the vagus nerve are parasympathetic impulses that decrease the heart rate
the average heartbeat of a healthy human is 75 beats per minute
the study of the heart and diseases associated with it is known as cardiology
the bulk of the heart consists of myocardium
the two upper chambers of the heart are separated from each other by the interatrial septum
risk factor(s) for the development of heart disease includes high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and genetic predisposition
the valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the tricuspid valve
when blood moves from an atrium to a ventricle the valve is pushed open, the papillary muscles relax, and the corordae tendinae slacken
parasympathetic neurons reach the heart via the __ cranial nerve X
a fluttering of the heart is called palpitation
blood from which three vessels enters the right atrium the superior and inferior vena cavae and the coronary sinus
atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits called plaques partially block the arteries
why is the right ventricle wall thinner than the left ventricle? the left ventricle has to pump blood further and if the right pumped as hard as the left, the lungs would burst
regulates stroke volume degree of stretch in the heart, Starling’s law, force of contraction, and pressure required and the opening of the valves
pulmonary edema results from congestive heart failure
the increase in blood pressure during exercise could cause unstable plaque in a blood vessel to rupture triggering the clotting process
during strenuous exercise, a well trained athelete can achieve a cardiac output __ that of a sedentary person double
fluid compressing the heart causes a life threatening condition called cardiac tamponade
CAD stands for coronary artery disease
the “good” chemical that takes cholesterol to the liver for elimination is low density lipoproteins
T/F All arteries contain oxygenated blood, and all veins contain non-oxygenated blood FALSE – both carry oxygenated and deoxygenated depending on the original source
T/F Atrioventricular valves are held closed by chordae tendinae and papillary muscles TRUE
T/F The heart valves prevent the backflow of blood during the cardiac cycle TRUE
T/F The autonomic nervous system initiates the contraction of the heart FALSE – the SA node
T/F Malfunctioning heart valves is called myocardial infarction FALSE – heart attack
T/F Blood flow through the heart is caused by changes in the size of the chambers TRUE
T/F The atria receive the blood returning to the heart TRUE
T/F Acetylcholine released by the parasympathetic fibers increases the rate of the heartbeat FALSE – decreases the heart rate
T/F Elevated levels of potassium decrease the heart rate and strength of the contraction TRUE
T/F The rate of the heartbeat stays constant throughout life FALSE – changes due to age, physical fitness, body temperature, or diet
T/F Exercise increases cardiac efficiency and output TRUE
T/F pericardium 3 layers: outer layer parietal pericardium forms inelastic pericardial cavity around; middle is visceral pericardium; inner layer is either fibrous pericardium if reference pericardial coverings or epicardium if reference layers FALSE – pericardium is 2 parts; fibrous is outside then serous which has the parietal and inner visceral layer (epicardium)
T/F Oxygen is sent to the myocardium first through the cardiac arteries FALSE – sent to left atrium via pulmonary veins
T/F In general, heart attack risk is low for those who exercise regularly and higher for those who do not TRUE
T/F Any irregular heart rhythm is an arrhythmia TRUE
T/F Ischemia, hypoxia, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction all result from a lack of oxygen to the heart tissue TRUE
T/F There is evidence from heart transplants that there is replacement of heart cells TRUE
T/F Overall, the incidence of death during physical activity is relatively high FALSE - low
T/F The beginning of an atherosclerotic plaque is a fatty streak formed from magrophages eating LDL particles and T cells TRUE
T/F Silent myocardial ischemia is a reduced blood flow to the heart tissue without any pain or forewarning TRUE
T/F Valvular stenosis is a combination of 4 defects including the aorta emerging from both ventricules FALSE – tetralogy of fallot
the inner visceral layer of the pericardium is also called the epicardium
the scientific study of the normal heart and the diseases associated with it is cardiology
the space between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes is the pericardial cavity
inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis
the thickenings of the sarcolemma that connect the cardiac muscle fibers are intercalated discs
the backflow of blood through an incompletely closed valve is called regurgitation
the pouchlike structure on the anterior surface of each atrium is called auricle
the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
the coronary arteries originate as branches of the ascending aorta
the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the __ valve tricuspid
the large vein in the back of the heart collecting deoxygenated blood is the coronary sinus
the structure that picks up an action potential from the SA node is/are the AV node
the medical term for heart attack is myocardial infarction
a recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat is called a(n) electrocardiogram
the spread of the action potential through the ventricles is recorded as the __ wave of an ECG QRS
the specialized tissue capable of conducting action potentials and allowing the heart to beat without direct stimulus from the nervous system is the conduction system
contraction of the heart muscle is referred to as systole
heart sounds are produced by the __ of the AV valves and the semilunar valves closing
the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each contraction is called the stroke volume
the __ law of the heart explains the relationship between the stretching of the ventricular wall and the contraction strength Starling’s
a general term referring to an irregularity in the rhythm of the heart is arrhythmia
a procedure that is used to visualize the coronary arteries, chambers, valves, and great vessels is cardiac catheterization
the neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic fibers that increase the rate of the heartbeat is norepinephrine
an incomplete closure of the interventricular septum causes interventricular septal defect
a defect that exists at birth, and usually before, is called a(n) congenital defect
the pacemaker of the heart SA node
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle tricuspid valve
located between the left atrium and the left ventricle bicuspid valve
emerge from the bundle branches Purkinje fibers
consists of cardiac muscle tissue myocardium
the external layer of the heart wall epicardium
contraction of the heart chambers systole
relaxation of the heart chambers diastole
blood vessel associated with the left ventricle aorta
blood vessel associated with the right ventricle pulmonary trunk
refers to rapid heart rate tachycardia
indicates a slow heart rate bradycardia
low blood pressure hypotension
high blood pressure hypertension
inflammation of an artery arteritis
inflammation of a vein phlebitis
inflammation of a vein with clot formation thrombophlebitis
the obstruction of a blood vessel lumen occlusion
a temporary cessation of consciousness syncope
the smallest type of blood vessels are capillaries
the endothelium consists of simple squamous epithelium
the two main methods of capillary exchange are diffusion and bulk flow
exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue is the function of the capillaries
venous return is due to contraction of the heart, skeletal muscle pump, and respiratory pump
blood vessels that are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells and a basement membrane are capillaries
venules are small veins, collect blood from capillaries, drain into veins, and are similar in structure to arterioles
blood vessels that are referred to as blood reservoirs veins
blood pressure is highest in the arteries
resistance is related to blood viscosity, blood vessel length, and blood vessel radius
involved in the regulation of blood pressure baroreceptor reflexes, chemoreceptor reflexes, and carotid bodies
atrial natriuretic peptide is released by cells of the heart and lowers blood pressure
a symptom of shock increased levels of aldosterone, rapid, resting heart rate, cool, pale skin, and sweating
increase(s) blood pressure increased cardiac rate, increased peripheral resistance, increased blood volume, and increased water retention
peripheral resistance increases as blood viscosity increases
the cardiovascular center is located in the medulla oblongata
sympathetic stimulation results in increase in blood pressure
baroreceptors are located in the aorta and internal carotid arteries
neurons that monitor carbon dioxide levels in the blood and are located in the carotid and aortic bodies are chemoreceptors
hormones that influences blood pressure ADH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and renin
hormones that cause an increase in blood pressure epinephrine, norepinephrine, rennin, and ADH
blood vessels that would have the greatest resistance to blood flow a long, small diameter blood vessel
the movement of blood from the abdominal veins into the thoracic veins is mostly due to pressure difference between the abdominal and thoracic cavity
blood vessels are commonly used to feel the pulse radial artery, brachial artery, popliteal artery, and common carotid artery
the pulse is a direct reflection of the heart rate
the diastolic blood pressure provides information about the resistance of blood vessels
describes the pulmonary circulation right ventricle to left atrium
the blood vessel(s) containing blood with the highest oxygen contents is/are the pulmonary veins
all systemic blood vessels branch from the aorta
the circulatory route which bring blood to the tissues and back to the heart is the systemic circulation
the common carotid is part of the cerebral circulation
the blood rich in substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is carried by the hepatic circulation
changes in the cardiovascular system related to the aging process reduced cardiac output, increased systolic blood pressure, and decreased maximum heart rate
the fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation because of two organ systems that are non-functional. These organ systems are the respiratory and digestive systems
arteries that directly branches from the abdominal aorta common iliac, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, and renal
the direct continuation of the brachial artery is the __ artery radial
the main vein draining blood from the heart tissue is the coronary sinus
the external jugular veins empty into the subclavian veins
the formation of new blood vessels is referred to as angiogenesis
where is blood flow the slowest veins
arteries vs. veins arteries are stronger, smaller in diameter, most do not have valves, and have higher blood pressure
blood flow through a particular tissue area is controlled by constriction of the precapillary sphincter of the arterioles
blood is mainly moved through the veins by changes in local muscle tissue and thoracic pressure
the sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the superior and inferior vena cavae to the lungs right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk
gases and nutrients leave the blood at the arteriole end of the capillaries
blood flow from the heart to the lungs is called the pulmonary circuit
atherosclerosis is a condition in which the arteries are “hardened” by deposits within the wall
atherosclerosis has stable plaque has a low lipid content, stable plaque doesn’t grow much, unstable plaque is more likely to rupture than stable plaque, and unstable plaque often contains a large number of macrophages
more common in the elderly CAD, CHF, atherosclerosis, and decreased blood flow to the brain
chronically high blood pressure is called hypertension
will help prevent hypertension or lower blood pressure don’t smoke, reduce intake of sodium, exercise, and reduce or manage stress
a thin weakened section of an artery or vein that bulges out is called a(n) aneurysm
T/F Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction TRUE
T/F All veins carry blood low in oxygen FALSE – pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood
T/F Leaky valves cause varicose veins TRUE
T/F Blood flow refers to the amount of blood that passes through a blood vessel in a given period of time TRUE
T/F Blood always flows from regions of lower blood concentration to regions of higher blood concentration FALSE - high to low
T/F Epinephrine has no effect on blood pressure FALSE – increases blood pressure
T/F Vascular resistance refers to the resistance to blood flow in the peripheral circulation TRUE
T/F Blood volume only occasionally changes blood pressure FALSE - always
T/F The vasomotor center is located in the hypothalamus FALSE – in the medulla oblongata
T/F Parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve causes a decrease in heart rate TRUE
T/F Exercise can cause an increase in blood pressure TRUE
T/F Muscle tissue is not dependent on autoregulation of blood flow FALSE – are dependent
T/F Velocity of blood flow depends on the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel TRUE
T/F Skeletal muscle contractions help to return venous blood TRUE
T/F Bradycardia indicates a rapid heart rate FALSE – slow
T/F Arteries and veins have several layers including 2 layers of connective tissue, layer of smooth muscle and smooth endothelium lining for efficient blood flow and to prevent clotting. The muscle lining is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins TRUE
T/F There isn’t enough blood to go around to all the tissues so the diameter of the arteries and arterioles as well as the constriction of the precapillary sphincters helps determine where blood should go TRUE
T/F Heart rate is regulated by the cardiac center in the hypothalamus and chemoreceptors that detect oxygen levels in the blood FALSE – cardiac center in the medulla oblongata
T/F The major factor that moves blood through the body is pressure differences in the blood vessels between when it leaves the heart and as it returns TRUE
T/F Systolic pressure is the higher number because it is the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting. Diastolic pressure is lower but it is a constant pressure, because the ventricles are relaxed TRUE
T/F Recently, researchers have discovered that it is impossible to reverse the plaque damage of atherosclerosis FALSE – possible
T/F Regular exercise and stress management can help decrease the plaque buildup associated with atherosclerosis TRUE
T/F Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart disease and death in older Americans TRUE
T/F Under the new guidelines, the prehypertension classification now contains individuals that would previously have been considered normal. This means the systolic and diastolic readings for this category are lower than in the past TRUE
T/F Orthostatic hypotension is a large decrease in blood pressure caused by a person standing up TRUE
arterioles within a tissue or organ branch into countless microscopic vessels called capillaries
the movement of water and solutes out of capillaries into the interstitial fluid is called filtration
the movement of water and solutes from the interstitial fluid into the capillaries is called reabsorption
an increase in the size of a blood vessel lumen is referred to as vasodilatation
the blood flow in capillaries is regulated by smooth muscle fibers called the pericapillary sphincter
chemoreceptors that are sensitive to carbon dioxide levels are found in the carotid and __ bodies aortic
veins that lose their elasticity and become stretched and flabby are called __ veins varicose
when hydrostatic pressure in capillaries is higher than osmotic pressure, __ occurs filtration
as blood flows from the heart to arteries to arterioles to capillaries, its velocity decreases
the alternate expansion and recoiling of an artery with each contraction of the left ventricle is called pulse
the instrument used to measure blood pressure is called sphygmomanometer
sweating during shock is due to __ stimulation sympathetic
the section between the diaphragm and the common iliac arteries is referred to as the abdominal aorta
the blood vessel emerging from the right ventricle is the pulmonary trunk
a small artery is called a(n) arteriole
blood flow from the left ventricle to the right atrium is the __ circulation systemic
the abdominal aorta branches into the common iliac arteries
the cerebral circulation is a subdivision of the __ circulation systemic
all veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior vena cava or the coronary sinus
the two pumps which help to return the blood to the heart are the skeletal muscle pump and the __ pump respiratory
the hormone released by cells of the kidneys in response to decreased blood volume or flow is renin
Created by: bmcg2324