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chap 15, 16

aqueous solution water that contains dissolved substances
brownian motion the chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
colloid a mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solute solution
electrolyte a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not
emulsion the colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another
hydrate a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
nonelectrolyte a compound that does not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state
solute dissolved particles in a solution
solvation a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in a solution, solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions
solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
strong electrolyte a solution in which a large portion of the solute exist as ions
surfactant any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension. ex: soaps and detergents
suspension a mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing
surface tension an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were with a thin skin
tyndall effect scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
weak electrolyte a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
boiling-point elevation the difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent
concentrated solution a solution containing a large amount of solute
concentration a measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent;usually express as mol/L
colligative property a property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identities; boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure lowering are colligative properties
dilute solution a solution that contains a small amount of solute
freezing point depression the difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent
henry's law at a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
immiscible describes liquids that are insoluble in one another. ex: oil and water
miscible describes liquids that dissolve in one another in all proportions
molal freezing point depression constant (Kf) the change in freezing point for a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular solute
molal boiling point elevation constant (Kb) the change in boiling point for a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular solute
molality (m) the concentration of solute in a solution expresses as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilogram (1000 g) of solvent
molarity (M) the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
mole fraction the ratio of the moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of of both solvent and solute
saturated solution a solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure; an equilibrium exists between undissolved solute and ions in solution
solubility the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at specified conditions of temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
supersaturated solution a solution that contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature; excess solute precipitates if a seed crystal is added
unsaturated solution an organic compound with one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
Created by: annacop