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Psychology Test 1

Test I missed and MUST take

Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the: medical model
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV in order to ______ various psychological disorders. identify
In a study by David Rosenhan (1973), researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices". This study best illustrated the negative effects of: diagnostic labels
A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by: a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and automatic nervous system arousal.
Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The idea of going shopping and getting lost terrifies her; she has groceries delivered. B/c of her fear, she earns her living at home. Sadie's behavior is: agoraphobia
Phobias are most likely to be characterized by; a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation.
Manuel is extremely shy and is so easily embarrassed when he is with other people that he often misses his college classes just to avoid social interactions. Manuel appears to suffer from a(n): social phobia
Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth floor apartment. In order to reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likley be diagnosed as experiencing a(n): obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessions are: offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
Compulsions are best described as: repetitive behaviors
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of: post-traumatic stress disorder
Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a _____ perspective. learning
A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a _____ perspective. learning
Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of ______ disorders. dissociative
The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of: memory
Several weeks after being fired from a job he held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of confusion. He had little sense of who he was and failed to recognize his wife. Landon's experience is most indicative of: dissociative disorder
Midori's therapist suggests that she developed a dissociative identity disorder as a way of protecting herself from an awareness of her own hatred for her abusive mother. The therapists' suggestion most directly reflects a _____ perspective. psychoanalytic
Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder? bipolar disorder
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from: major depressive disorder
Because is is so pervasive, _______ is often considered "the common cold" of psychological disorders. depression
Elmer owner of an auto service station suddenly began smashing the fenders and hoods of cars. When asked why he said he was turning the cars into racing machines. When tried to stop him, he said everybody was fired and broke windows. Elmer is showing: mania
Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of: optimism
After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with life Mark has suddenly become cheerful & so talkative he cant be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow. Mark's behavior is: bipolar disorder.
George Frederic Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of: bipolar disorder
Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger twoard parents? psychoanalytic
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with: depression
Learned helplessness is most closely associated with: depression
A therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. The therapist's interpretation reflects a _____ perspective. social-cognitive
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from: schizophrenia
In which type of disorder is a person's speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a "word salad"? schizophrenia
A breakdown in selective attention is most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from: schizophrenia
An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with: schizophrenia
North Americans born during the winter months are at a slightly increased risk for: schizophrenia
A short attention span is an early warning sign of: schizophrenia.
A lack of conscience is most characteristic of those who have a(n) _______ disorder. antisocial personality
In the last year Mr. Shangkun has been fired by 3 employers b/c they discovered he stole from their companies. He feels no remorse for this, however, his outward signs of repentance convinced his employers from taking him to court. This is indicative of: a personality disorder
There is some evidence that a relatively low level of autonomic nervous system arousal may contribute to: antisocial personality disorder
The symptoms of ______ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of _____. antisocial personality; schizophrenia
As a therapist, Dr. Cioffi often uses systematic desensitization. She also considers active listening to be an invaluable tool, and she frequently makes use of free association. Dr. Cioffi's therapeutic approach would best be described as: eclectic
Free association involves the: uncensored reporting of any thoughts that come to mind.
Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous o the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of: transference.
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends? interpersonal psychotherapy
Which approach emphasizes the importance of providing patients with feelings of unconditional acceptance? client-centered therapy
Which therapeutic approach relies most heavily on patients' discovering their own ways of effectively dealing with their difficulties? client-centered therapy
During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that they restate their spouse's comments before making their own. The therapist was applying a technique most closely associated with: client-centered therapy.
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of: behavior therapy.
Which of the following techniques is derived from classical conditioning principles? systematic desensitization
The repeated association of pleasant relaxing states with stimuli that arouse fear is a central feature of: systematic desensitization
To help Thor overcome his fear of giving public speeches, his therapist instructs him to relax and then to imagine speaking to a small audience. The therapist is using: systematic desensitization
A token economy is to operant conditioning as _______ is to classical conditioning systematic desensitization
Whenever 2-year-old Calista runs into the street in front of her house, her mother immediately spanks her. The mother's technique most closely resembles the procedure known as: aversive conditioning
Systematic desensitization is to classical conditioning as ______ is to operant conditioning. a token economy
What would be most helpful for encouraging mentally retarded adults to make their beds every morning? a token economy
In order to encourage Mrs. Coleman, a withdrawn schizophrenia patient, to be more socially active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone....The staff is making use of: a token economy
Which of the following is most often criticized for violating clients' rights to personal freedom and self-determination? behavior modification
Natasha claimed that her failure to get "A's" in all her college courses meant she was incompetent. Her therapist calmly challenged this assertion, claiming...This is typical of a ____ therapist. cognitive
Cognitive therapists are most likely to encourage depressed clients to: stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
In order to help Mr. Eberstadt overcome his addiction to alcohol, his therapist first attempted to discover whether the substance was somehow a reaction to his wife's behavior. The therapist's concern is most likely to be characteristic of a: family therapist
The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of: family therapy
In order to help Mrs. Otsuki lose weight, her therapist first attempted to assess whether her weight loss might be personally threatening to her husband. The therapist's concern is most characteristic of a: family therapist.
Therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because: clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy.
Although Soren once scored 37 points during a single high school basketball game, he was subsequently unable to beat or match this record no matter how hard he tried. His experience may at best be partially explained in terms of: regression toward the mean
Meta-analysis refers to: a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effective way to treat Ron's problem would involve ____ therapy. behavior
Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of: EMDR
The placebo effect refers to: the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a: psychiatrist
The biomedical treatment most widely used today is: drug therapy
One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill... the double blind technique
One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is: aerobic exercise
Inflated estimates of the value of antidepressant drugs are in large part due to the fact that patient recovery often results from: the placebo effect
Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery? electroconvulsive therapy
A chest implant that intermittently stimulates the vagus nerve has been used to treat some patients with: chronic depression
Which psychosurgical procedure was designed to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients? lobotomy
Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie: drug therapy
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another? social psychology
Attribution theory was designed to account for: how people explain other people's behavior
Created by: poppy21