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# IB SL Physics Terms

### ALL UNITS

TermDefinition
accurate average value moves towards true value
precise data are close together
random error positive and negative values around average value / values are scattered or have wide range
systematic error error is identical for each reading; error deviates from the correct value by the same fixed amount
coefficient of friction ratio between maximum friction and normal reaction
elastic collision collision in which kinetic energy and momentum are conserved
force net force is rate of change of momentum
impuse change in momentum
momentum product of mass and velocity
first law a body continues at rest or constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant external force
second law rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to/directly proportional to force acting on body
third law when two bodies A and B interact, the force that A exerts on B is equal and opposite to the force that B exerts on A - force on Body A is equal in magnitude to force on Body B (from A) - forces are in opposite directions - forces are of same kind
translational equilibrium sum of net forces action on object is zero
work distance moved in direction of force energy transferred from one location to another
centre of gravity point where weight/gravitational force of object appears to act
boyle's law for an ideal gas at constatnt temeprature, pressure is inversely proportional to volume
thermal capacity of body energy required to increase temeprature of a substance by 1 degree celsius or q kelvin
ideal gas gas that obeys universal gas law at all pressures, volumes, and temperatures; gas in which there are no IMFs; molecules have zero potential energy, only kinetic energy
internal energy sum of kinetic energy and intermolecular potential energy
specific heat capacity thermal energy/heat required to change the temperature of a substance by 1 kelvin/1 degree celsius per unit mass
latent heat of fusion thermal energy absorbed/released when a unit mass of liquid freezes to become solid at CONSTANT TEMPERATURE; or solid melts to become liquid at CONSTANT TEMPERATURE
latent heat of vaporization quantity of thermal energy/heat required to convert unit mass of liquid to vapour with CONSTANT TEMPERATURE/at BOILING POINT
temperature of substance temperature is proportional to measure of average kinetic energy of molecules/particles of substance
thermal capacity thermal energy required to raise temperature of object by 1 kelvin or 1 degree celsius
thermal energy non-mechanical transfer of energy between two different bodies as a result of a temperature difference between them
thermal equilibrium rate of energy absorption is equal to the rate of energy emission
amplitude maximum displacement of system from equilibrium/centre of motion
coherent constant/zero phase difference between light waves
constructive interference when two waves meet; resultant displacement found by summing individual displacements; displacement greater than that of individual wave/to give max displacement
continuous travelling wave energy transfer; no interruption in transfer/without mass motion of medium
critical angle when transmitted ray/light in medium 2 is along boundary/REFRACTED AT 90 degrees; angle of incidence in medium 1 is critical angle OR when ray/light is incident on boundary at angle greater than critical angle of medium; ray is not transmitted --> TIR
diffraction when a wave front passes by/incident on edge/slit; wave bends/spreads into geometrical shadow - spreading out of a wave when it meets an aperture/gap/slit/obstancle
displacement (with reference to waves) distance in a particular direction from its mean position
electromagnetic wave oscillating/vibrating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other; at right angles to direction of propagation/energy transfer of wave/velocity/transverse can travel through vacuum
frequency of source number of oscillations/vibrations per unit time
interference when waves overlap, resultant displacement is sum of individual displacements
intensity of sound wave power per unit area
longitudinal wave wave where displacement of particles/oscillations of particles is parallel to direction of energy propagation
monochromatic single/same wavelength/frequency
node zero displacement
principle of superposition when 2 waves meet/interfere --> resultant displacement of medium/particles is vector sum of their individual displacements
polarized light light in which the electric/magnetic field (vector) vibrates only in one plane/electric field oscillates/vibrates in one plane only
ray direction which energy of wave travels
resonance maximum amplitude of oscillation, when a periodic force is applied to it, and the frequency of the force is equal to the natural frequency of vibration of the system
refractive index ratio of speed of light in vacuum to speed of light in a substance
SHM force/acceleration are proportional to the displacement/distance from a mean position; directed towards this equilibrium point, in opposite direction of displacement/distance
transverse wave direction of energy propagation is at right angles to vibration of particles in medium
travelling wave wave that transfers energy between points in a medium
TIR for a ray attempting to move from high to low refractive index medium; phenomena in which angle of incidence is greater than critical angle; critical angle is angle of incidence for which angle of refraction is 90 degrees; leading to a REFLECTED ray
unpolarized light all possible polarization directions are equall represented/ direction fo polarization is random
wavefront line that joins points with same phase, of same crest trough
wavelength distance moved by wave during one oscillation of the source;
wave speed • distance travelled per unit time; • by the energy of the wave / by a wavefront; OR rate at which energy is propagated along wave
coulomb's law • the force between two (point) charges; • is inversely proportional to the square of their separation and (directly) proportional to (the product of) their magnitudes;
electric current The amount of charge that flows through a cross-sectional area of a conductor per unit time. OR Rate of flow of chart through a conductor;
electric field strength • electric force per unit charge • acting on a small/test positive charge
electric field • region/area/volume (of space); • where a charge experiences a force;
electric p.d. • Work done/energy per unit charge; (ratio idea necessary) • to move positive test charge between points (in an electric field); Work done per unit charge
electric resistance potential difference across the wire/component divided by the current through the wire/component
emf the work done per unit charge in moving a quantity of charge completely around a circuit --> ⭐ OR power delivered by the supply per unit current
ideal voltmeter infinite resistance OR draws no current from circuit/component OR has no effect on the circuit
internal resistance of cell • resistance of the components/chemicals/materials within the cell itself {not “resistance of cell”}; • leading to energy/power loss/dissipated in driving current through the cell;
kirchoff's first law ΣI = 0 at junction
kirchoff's second law Σemf = Σp.d. around a loop/circuit
ohm's law potential difference proportional to current, provided that the temperature/physical conditions are constant V = IR
gravitational field • region/area/volume (of space); • where a mass experiences a force;
gravitational field strength • the «gravitational» force per unit mass; • exerted/acting on a point/small/test mass;
gravitational field strength at a point • force per unit mass • acting on a small/test/point mass «placed at the point in the field»
newton's universal law of gravitation • the (attractive) force between two point masses; • is directly proportional to the product of the masses; • and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (between their centres of mass);
Created by: spock!
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