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# Ch4 IB Physics Vocab

### Chapter 4 IB Physics Vocabulary

Forced Oscillations oscillations resulting from the application of an external, usually periodic force
Oscillations vibrations
Displacement distance traveled in a specified directions
Amplitude the maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position when executing SHM; for wave motion it is the maximum displacement of the medium through which the wave travels
Frequency the number of complete oscillations a system makes in unit time
Period the time taken for an oscillating system to make one complete oscillation
Elastic Potential Energy the energy associated with a system subject to stress e.g. a stretched spring
Damping the decrease with time of the amplitude of oscillations
Natural Frequency the frequency of oscillation of a system that is not subjected to a periodic external force
Resonance this occurs when the frequency of forced oscillations is equal to the natural frequency of the system that is being forced
Transverse Waves (1) in these types of wave the source that produces the wave vibrates at right angles to the direction of travel of the wave i.e. the direction in which the energy carried by the wave is propagated
Transverse Waves (2) the particles of the medium through which the wave travels vibrate at right angles to the direction of travel of the wave (direction of energy propagation)
Longitudinal Waves (1) in these types of wave, the source that produces the wave vibrates in the same direction as the direction of travel of the wave i.e. the direction in which the energy carried by the wave is propagated
Longitudinal Waves (2) the particles of the medium through which the wave travels vibrate in the same direction of the wave (direction of energy propagation)
Wavelength the distance along the medium between two successive particles that have the same displacement
Wave Speed the speed with which energy is carried in the medium by the wave; depends only on the nature and properties of the medium
Electromagnetic Waves waves that consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields; they are produced by the accelerated motion of electric charge
Reflection occurs when a wave is incident at a boundary between two different media and results in some of the energy of the wave being returned into the medium in which it is traveling before incidence
Diffraction the bending and/or spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction or pass through an aperture
Principle of Superposition states the displacement at a point where two or more waves meet is the vector sum of the individual displacements of each wave at that point
Node a point on a stationary wave where the displacement is a maximum
Antinode a point on a stationary wave where the displacement is zero
Constructive Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and their individual displacements add to give a displacement that is greater than any of the individual displacements
Destructive Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and their individual displacements add to give a displacement that is less than any of the individual displacements
SHM (Simple Harmonic Motion) occurs when the force acting on a system is directed towards the equilibrium position of the system and is proportional to the displacement of the system from equilibrium
Created by: zomg