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Chapters 12 & 13

Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium

Kinetics explains how a process happens and its speed
Collision Theory in order for substances to react with each other, they must come into contact ("collide") with each other. they also must possess the minimum energy capable of starting the reaction (activation energy)
How does temperature affect rate? if temp increases, it shows an increase in kinetic energy (random motions). this means its more likely that collisions also increases. it also means it is more likely that the molecules will have the minimum energy (Ea) (temp increases = rate increases)
How does concentration of reactants affect rate? if the concentrations of the reactants increase, there will be more molecules of reactant present. more molecules makes it more likely that collisions will occur. (concentration increases = rate increases)
How does the presence of a catalyst affect rate? catalysts reduce the activation energy. if the Ea is lower, it is more likely that molecules will possess that amount of energy, and so colliding molecules will be more likely to be able to react. (catalyst present = rate increases)
How does surface area affect rate? if the surface area is larer, more of the substance is exposed and able to react at the same time. (surface area increases = rate increases)
How does the nature of reactants affect rate? strong bonds decrease the rate b/c breaking strong bonds requires more energy; being aqueous increase the rate b/c an aqueous solution has higher kinetic energy than solids and more reactant present than pure liquids, both of which increase collisions
Rate of Reaction (definition) change in concentration [of either reactants or products] over the change in time
Rate of Reaction [products] delta [P] / delta(time)
Explain the formula for the rate of reaction [products] the faster the products form, the larger the denominator will be. this results in a higher overall number--a higher rate.
Rate of Reaction [reactants] Rate = - delta[R] / delta(time)
Explain the Rate of Reaction [reactants] if the reactants disappear quickly, the rate will be high (delta[R] will be negative, but -delta[R] will be positive). the faster [R] decreases, the higher the rate will be.
Rate Mechanism the series of steps necessary to complete the reaction
If a reaction's rate mechanism has multiple steps, what determines the rate? the rate will be determined by the slowest step; the rate expression will be written based on the slowest step
Differential Rate Law [definition] aka rate law; compares the concentration of the reactants to rate
Differential Rate Law [formula] rate = K[R]^m
Units for K [kinetics] L^(n-1) / mol^(n-1) * time
Integrated Rate Law [definition] compares concentration of the reactants to time
Integrated Rate Law (order 0) [A]o - [A] = Kt
Integrated Rate Law (first order) ln ( [A]o / [A] ) = Kt
Integrated Rate Law (second order) ( 1 / [A] ) - ( 1 / [A]o ) = Kt
Half Life (first order) [A]o / 2K
Half Life (second order) 0.693 / K
Half Life (third order) 1 / K[A]o
Linear Plot (first order) [A] vs. t
Linear Plot (second order) ln[A] vs. t
Linear Plot (third order) 1 / [A] vs. t
Half Life [definition] the time needed to reach half the original concentration
Created by: nickyvee