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Organic Chemistry #1

lecture #1

Functional Group A collection of atoms within a molecules with a common bonding pattern.
Arenes Aromatic hydrocarbon rings like the 6-carbon ring benzene.
Alkyl Halide A carbon based molecule attached to a halogen
Halogen Elements from group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine)
Alcohol C bonded to the O of a hydroxyl group
Hydroxyl group OH
Ether Two carbons bonded to the same O
Amine Carbon bonded to an N
Thiol C bonded to an SH group
Sulfide Two C's bonded to the same S
Carbonyl groups C=O (carbon with a double bond to an oxygen atom). Because the O is more electronegative in all of these the carbonyl C has a partial positive charge (sensitive and reactive) and the O has a partial negative charge.
Aldehyde One H bonded to a C=O
Ketone two C's bonded to the C=O group
Carboxylic Acid An OH bonded to a C=O (COOH). These are present in organic acids
Alkanes Hydrocarbons with only single bonds C-C and C-H bonds, no functional groups. They can form long and branched chains. They have only sigma bonds. They are saturated (w/H's). The bonds are nonpolar=no H bonds=not water soluble. All tetrahedral angles.
Aliphatic molecules Organic compounds with no rings.
Alkyl groups Derivatives of alkanes missing one H (for example "methyl"=CH3
Ring strain Deviation from the ideal 109.5 degree angles between C atoms results in instability of cycloalkanes. The fewer carbons in a cycloalkane, the less stable (cause the more deviations).
Primary carbon Carbon bonded to just one other carbon.
Secondary carbon Carbon bonded to 2 other carbons
Tertiary carbon Carbon bonded to 3 other carbons
Carbon degree significance The more carbons to which a carbon is bonded, the weaker the carbon's bonds with the H atoms.
Stereoisomers Isomers of spacial arrangement
Constitutional isomers Difference connections between atoms but the same chemical formulas
Hydrocarbon Boiling Points The more atoms in the hydrocarbon, the higher the boiling point.
Prefix "iso-" A branch on the carbon one before the end.
Created by: YaelNoa