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# Chem Review test9-12

### chem review

Thermodynamics the study of energy and its transformation form one form to another
Energy the capacity to do work
Work a force acting through a distance
First law of thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transferred between the system and its surroundings
Thermal Energy Energy associated with the temperature of an object
Chemical Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds of elements
Second law of thermodynamics For any process to be spontaneous, to occur without outside intervention, energy must be dispersed (energy becomes more spread out in any spontaneous process)
Entropy Energy dispersal
Joule Named after James Joule, energy could be converted from one type to another as long as the total energy was conserved
calorie the amount of energy required to hear 1g of water by 1°C
1cal = How many Joules? 1cal = 4.18J
1cal = How many Large Calories? 1cal = 1000Calories (Large “C” for big calories)
1Quad = How many Joules? 1.06 x 10^18 Joules
1 Kilowatt-hour = How many Joules? 1 Kilowatt-hour = 3.6 x 10^6 Joules
Power Energy per unit of time. The rate of energy output or input to time (is not energy) power = 1watt or power = 1 joule/sec
Temperature the measure of the kinetic energy associated with the motion of its composite atoms and molecules
Fahrenheit scale 32°F is freezing, and 212°F is boiling (water)
Celsius Scale 0°C is freezing, and 100°C is boiling (water)
Kelvin scale 0K is absolute zero, no negatives
Celsius to Kelvin? K = °C + 273
Fahrenheit to Celsius °C = 5/9 * [°F – 32]
Celsius to Fahrenheit °F = 9/5 * [°C] + 32
Heat capacity the quantity of heat energy required to change the temperature of a given amount of the substance by 1 °C
Exothermic reactions Give off energy to the surroundings
Endothermic reactions absorb energy from its surroundings
Enthalpy of reaction (∆H [rxn]) Example: ∆H [rxn] = -49.3 kJ/g CH₄ means that 49.3 kJ are emitted for each gram of CH₄ that is burned
Fossil fuels made mostly of hydrocarbons
Natural gas mixture of methane and ethane
Petroleum large mixture of hydrocarbons
Photosynthesis sunlight + 6CO₂ + 6H₂O → 6O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆
Greenhouse gasses CO₂, CH₄
Pressure an inherent quantity associated with are and the gases that compose it
Atmosphere The layer of air that surrounds the earth
Barometers a device that measures pressure
Pressure = ? Pressure = a / Volume, a is a constant of proportionality
P₁ V₁ = ? P₁ V₁ = P₂ V₂
Relationship between Pressure and temperature V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Combined Gas law (P₁ V₁)/T₁ = (P₂ V₂)/T₂
Nitrogen Fixation the process of breaking N₂ triple bond
Respiration C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + Energy
Troposphere from ground level to 10km (all life, mountains, and weather)
Stratosphere 10 to 50km, contains the ozone (O₃)
Mesosphere 50 to 80km, and burns up meteors
Ionosphere 80km and up, northern lights, and burns up meteors
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) a chemical that replaced ammonia and sulfur dioxide in refrigeration and air-conditioning, but prevented the break down of other harmful man made chemicals in the atmosphere
Cohesive Forces Attractions between molecules (holds liquids and solids together)
Evaporation Molecules in a liquid, undergoing constant random motion, may acquire enough energy to overcome attractions with neighbors and fly into the gas phase
Crystalline Solids Solids in which the constituent particles have long-range order
Crystalline Structure The repeating pattern of molecules or atoms
Melting point the point where a solid becomes a liquid
Boiling point When something goes from a liquid to a gas
Dispersion the weakest cohesive force, are the result of small fluctuations in the electron clouds of atoms and molecules. These fluctuations result in instances where electrons are not evenly distributed in the molecule forming an instantaneous dipole
London Force Dispersion
Instantaneous dipole temporary bonds with atoms
Permanent dipoles Strong attractions between atoms and molecules
Polar Molecules have permanent dipoles
Molarity: (M) = ? Molarity: (M) = moles solute / liters solution
Parts per million (ppm) = ? Parts per million (ppm) = (grams solute / grams solution) x 10^6
Milligrams per liter (mg/L) = ? Milligrams per liter (mg/L) = milligrams solute / liters solution
Flash freezing quickly freezing organic things to keep the water in them from expanding too much and causing cell rupture.
Blue Baby when a baby ingests nitrates and affects the hemoglobin in the baby’s blood causing the baby to look bluish
Water Treatment process Public water treatment: Reservoir → Wire Mesh Screen → Coagulation → Settling tank → Sand or Gravel Filtration → Activated Carbon Filtration or Aeration →Chlorination
Created by: Foxman