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Math Unit_12

Probability, Rates, and Ratios Vocabulary

Common Factor Any number that is a factor of two or more numbers. For example, 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.
Equally likely outcomes Outcomes of a chance experiment or situations that have the same probability of happening. If all the possible outcomes are equally likely, then the probability of an event is equal to: number of favorable outcomes ÷ number of possible outcomes.
Factor Tree A way to get the prime factorization of a number. Write the original number as a product of factors. Then write each of these factors as a product of factors, and so on, until the factors are all prime numbers. A factor tree looks like an upside down tr
Greatest Common Factor (GCF) The largest factor that two or more numbers have in common. For example, the common factors of 24 and 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. Thus, the greatest common factor is 12.
Least Common Multiple (LCM) The smallest number that is a multiple of two or more numbers. For example, while some common multiples of 6 and 8 are 24, 48, and 72, the least common multiple of 6 and 8 is 24.
Multiplication Counting Principle A way of determining that total number of possible outcomes for two or more separate choices. For example, suppose you roll a typical die and then flip a coin. There are 6 choices for which a number on the die lands up (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) and 2 choices
Prime Factorization A whole number expressed as a product of prime factors. For example the prime factorization of 24 is 2 * 2 * 2 * 3.
Probability A number from 0-1 that tells the chance that an event will happen. For example, the probability that a fair coin will show heads is ½. The closer a probability is to 1, the more likely the event is to happen.
Rate A comparison by division of two quantities with unlike units. For example, traveling 100 miles in 2 hours is an average rate of 100 mi/2 hr, or 50 miles per hour. In this case, the rate compares distance (miles) to time (hours).
Ratio A comparison by division of two quantities with the same units. Ratios can be fractions, decimals, percents, or stated in words. Ratios can also be written with a colon between the two numbers being compared. For example, if a team wins 3 out of 5 games
Tree Diagram A network of points connected by line segments and containing no closed loops. Factor trees are tree diagrams used to factor numbers. The first tree diagram below shows the prime factorization of 30. The second tree diagram models flipping one coin two
Created by: mrsthompson