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# Physics 220 Final

Faraday's Law in Words The emf around a loop equals the rate at which the magnetic flux within the loop is changing. emf=-dBFlx/dt
3 ways to change flux -Change B in a loop -Change area of loop -change orientation of loop
looping electric field lines Faraday’s Law - The source of looping electric field lines is changing magnetic flux.
Lenz's Law The direction of induced current always opposes the change in magnetic flux.
Commutators and Brushes AC DC These allow electrical connections to be made by pressing conductors together. -Uses double commutators(sinusoidal wave) -Bouncing wave
The Split Commutator changes the end of the loop connected to the positive terminal of the battery every half cycle (DC)
Generator Motor operated in reverse
Inductor a coil of wire placed in a circuit. usually solenoidal or toroidal windings. - oppose change in circuits.
An Inductor in a DC Circuit produces a B field and the wire has a resistance.
An Inductor in an AC Circuit Changing current continually, hence, changing B field, self inductions
LR CIrcuits resistor is large Inductor is large -takes shorter time for current to decrease, decreases induced current -better at making induced current, takes longer for induced current to decrease
Kirchoff's Loop Law The voltage around the loop at any given time must be zero. q(t)=Asin(wt)+Bcos(wt) q(t)=CVocos(wt) at max
LC Circuits Initially the capacitor is charged. No current flows as the inductor initially prevents it. Energy is in the electric field of the capacitor
The Oscilloscope Measures voltage as a function of time Usually used for waves with repeated waveforms Starts a trace when the wave has a certain value Can compare two voltages Sometimes can show single pulses also
Inductive Reactance wL has a role that is similar to resistance – it relates voltage to current. XsubL Large at high f
Capacitive Reactance 1/wC - XsubC Large at low f
Resonance frequency when inductive reactance = capacitive reactance
Circuit Rules for AC Circuits - Parallel 1-their voltage phasors are the same. 2-their current phasors add to give the total current
Circuit Rules for AC Circuits - Series 1-their current phasors are the same. 2-their voltage phasors add to give the total voltage.
Impedance the combined “effective resistance” of circuit elements.
effective AC current Irms
Displacement current change in electric flux
Maxwell’s Term The displacement current term is called “Maxwell’s Term” in Ampère’s Law The amount of magnetic field lying along a closed (Amperian) loop is proportional to the rate at which electric flux through the loop changes.
Faraday's Law The amount of electric field lying along a closed (Amperian) loop is proportional to the rate at which magnetic flux through the loop changes. looping electric
Ampère’s Law The amount of magnetic field lying along a closed (Amperian) loop is proportional to the current passing through the loop. looping b
Gauss's LAw of Magnetism The net number of magnetic field lines passing through a closed (Gaussian) surface is zero. spreading b
Gauss's Law of Electricity The net number of electric field lines passing through a closed (Gaussian) surface is proportional to the charge enclosed. spreading E
Fields of Accelerating Charges1 Moving charges produce both electric and magnetic fields Acceleration fields are “doglegs” in field lines produced when charges accelerate.
Fields of Accelerating Charges2 Acceleration fields become perpendicular to the direction the filed moves. Acceleration fields fall off as 1/r rather than 1/r 2.
Characteristics of Radiation Produced by accelerating charges Perpendicular to the direction the field moves. Fall off as 1/r rather than 1/r 2 Emax=cBmax
Intensity power per unit area or energy/area/time.