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CHM231 Ch.6

Difference between ordinary light and plane-polarized light Ordinary light has light waves vibrating in all planes, but Plane-polarized light has light waves vibrating in only parallel planes
What's an optically active compound? A compound that rotates the plane of polarized light
What's a polarimeter? An instrument that measures the ability of a compound to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light
What does the magnitude of observed plane-polarized light rotation depend on? The concentration of the compound, the length of the sample tube, the temperature, the solvent, and the wavelength of the used light
What's a dextrorotary rotation? A (+) clockwise rotation of the plane of plane-polarized light
What's a levorotary rotation? A (-) counterclockwise rotation of the plane of plane-polarized light
What's an enantiomer? A nonsuperposable mirror image
What does chiral mean? Two molecules or objects are mirror images but are nonsuperposable on eachother
What does achiral mean? A molecule and its mirror image are superposable
What does it mean if a molecule's superposable? Molecules are identical and there's no possibility of enantiomerism
Do achiral or chiral molecules rotate the plane of polarized light? Chiral molecules
If a molecule contains an internal mirror plane (a plane of symmetry), is it chiral or achiral? Achiral
What's another name for a mirror plane? A plane of symmetry
Does a chiral molecule have an internal mirror plane? No
If there are four different groups bonded to a carbon molecule, is there a mirror plane? No
What is a carbon with four different groups bonded to it called? A stereocenter or asymmetric carbon
What are three identical physical and chemical properties of enantiomers? same melting point and boiling point, same bond length and bond strengths, and the same amount of specific rotation (but in opposite direction)
Are many drugs chiral or achiral? Chiral
How do you name a chiral molecule? 1) Assign a priority from highest (1) to lowest (4) on each molecule of the stereocenter. 2) Lowest priority molecule faces away from you. 3) Read the next 3 from highest to lowest; Clockwise = R, Counterclockwise = S
What's a diastereomer? A molecule with 2 [or more?] stereocenters
For a molecule with X stereomers, how many stereoisomers are possible? 2^X
What's a stereoisomer? Isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ only in the 3-D orientations of their atoms in space (so each molecule is bonded to the same molecule, but those molecules might be arranged differently)
What's a meso compound? An achiral compound that has two or more stereocenters
What's a racemic mixture? An equimolar mixture of two enantiomers
What is the molar ratio of dextrorotary to levorotary molecules in a racemic mixture? 1:1
Does a racemic mixture exhibit optical activity? If so, explain what this means. No it does not, so it doesn't rotate the plane of polarized light
What's a resolution? When a racemic mixture is separated into its enantiomers
What's usually used to separate racemic mixtures? Enzymes
What does the R enantiomer of thalidomide do? It's effective against morning sickness, insomnia, & coughs, and acts as a painkiller and tranquilizer
What does the S enantiomer of thalidomide do? It's teratogenic
Are many of the molecules in living systems chiral or achiral? Chiral
What is chymotrypsin (ki' mo trip' sin)? An enzyme in the intestine of animals that catalyzes the digestion of proteins
What are the two types of isomers, and explain their differences? Constitutional isomers (same molecular formula but different structure) & stereoisomer (same molecular formula, same attachment to atoms)
What are the two types of stereoisomers? Enantiomers and diastereomers
What are the two types of diastereomers? Conformational isomers and Geometric isomers
What are the two types of geometric isomers? Configurational isomers and cis-trans isomers
Created by: 817229501