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RFC1 Test

mean average-add up all the numbers; divide by number of numbers. Interval/ratio
range difference between largest and smallest numbers
median middle number-place in numerical order first. Ordinal
standard deviation score root of the variance of a set of numbers. Used with interval and ratio data.
mode number that occurs most often. Nominal
ANOVA analysis of variance. A simple one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a parametric test used to determine whether scores from 2 or more groups are significantly different at a selected probality level.
statistical error difference between estimated and true value (random)
systematic error same as above (non-random)
type I error false positive - rejecting null hypothesis when true
type II error false negative - the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is not true
variance a measure of the amount of variance within the values of that variable
t test Used to determine whether two groups of scores are significantly different from one another. It compares teh observed difference between means with the difference expected by chance.
wilcoxon signed rank designed to test a hypothesis about the location of a population distribution
quartile divisions one of the four divisions of observations which have been grouped into 4 equal sized sets based on their statistical rank
descriptive statistics describing what is or what the data shows
inferential statistics trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone
problem statement indicates particular focus of study
review of the literature comprehensive, flows, relevant, primary sources, cited accurately
hypotheses specific, testable, expected relation
particpants described, adequate size, no sampling bias
instruments comply with IRB standards, appropriate, rational
research design and procedures appropriate, applied correctly, logically relates
results descriptive statistics presents, assumptions met
discussion each result discussed, generalizations consistent with results
abstract and summary problem stated, design identified, procedures described
correlational a measure of the association of 2 or more dependent variables
Causal comparative attempts to identify causative relationship between independent/dependent variable
Experimental =maintains control over all factors
Correlational coefficient== a linear relationship between 2 variables
Pearson r tells the magnitude of the assoc. between variables on a ratio scale. Used to calculate relationship for interval or ratio data.
Prediction study determines which variables are most highly correlated w/criterion variable
content validity addresses whether the test measures the intended content area
criterion related validity determined by relating performance on a test to performance on an alternative test or other measure
construct validity assesses what the test is actually measuring
consequential validity refers to the extent to which an instrument creates harmful effects for the user
stability test retest empirical item - selection-same group/same test measure the stability of scores over time
equivalence:equivalant forms equality-same group of people/different forms of test
internal consistency a measure based on the correlations between items on the same test
split half randomly divide all items into two sets
scorer/rater reliabilty determines consistency in which rater asigns scores
If a test is reliable, does it also mean that it is valid? Not necessarily
If a test is valid, is it also reliable? Yes
Spearman rho Used to calculate relationship with ordinal data.
dependent variables those believed to depend on or to be caused by another variable
independent variables the hypothesized cause of the dependent variable
Null Hypothesis there is little existing research or theoretical support for a hypotheisi
Chi square a nonparametric test used to test differences between groups when the data are frequency counts or the percentages or proportions converted into frequencies
ethnography the form of qualitative research that focuses on describing the culture of a group of people
case study research form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a deatiled account of one or more cases.
Grounded theory a qualitative approach to generating and developing a theory from data that the researcher collects.
Nominal Measurement the numerical values just name the attribute uniquely. Jersey numbers in basketball, for example. Qualitative
Ordinal Measurement Attributes can be rank ordered. Distances between attributes have no meaning. Years of college on a questionaire.Quantitative
Interval Measurement Differences between the attribues Does have meaning. Measuring temperature.Interval between values is interpretable. Quantitative
Ratio Measurement ABSOLUTE ZERO that is meaningful. Number of clients in 6 months. Quantitative
raw score number of items correct
norm-refernced scoring student's performance compared with performance of others
Criterion refernced scoring student performance compared to preset standard
self-refernced scoring how individual's scores change over time
performance assessment emphasize student process and require a project
cognitive tests measure intellectual processes (thinking, memorizing)
diagnostic tests provide scores to facilitate identification of strengths and weaknesses (tests for SDC classes)
aptitude tests measure prediction or potential versus what has been learned (wescler)
affective test measure attitude, emotion, (Likert)
threats to validity unclear directions, confusing or unclear items, vocabulary or reading too difficult, subjective scoring, cheating, errors in administration
sample a set of elements taken from a larger population
statistic a numerical characteristic of a sample
parameter a numerical characteristic of population
random sampling produces representative samples
non-random sampling does not produce representative samples
EPSEM equal probability sampling method
stratified random sampling divide into males/females, take a random sample from each
proportional stratified samplng EPSEM, subsamples (males/females) must be proportional to size in population
disproportional stratified sampling not prportional to size in population
one stage cluster sampling select random sample of clusters (classrooms) then include all individual units in the selected clusters
two stage cluster sampling same as above except take subsets (like 10 kids from each classroom
convenience sampling people most available nonrandom
quaota sampling setting quotas (25 Asians, 25 African Americans, etc) nonrandom
purposive sampling researcher specifies characteristics (7th graders with ADD)nonrandom
snowball sampling start with one, ask them to find one, ask them to find one, etc. nonrandom
maximum variation sampling wide range of cases qualitative
homogeneous sample selection small and homogeneous case or set of cases qualitative
extreme case sampling cases that represent extremes on some dimensions
typical-case sampling typical or average cases
critical case sampling cases known to be very important
negative case sampling cases that diconform your generalizations
opportunistic sampling select useful cases as the opportunity arises
mixed purposeful sampling mix sampling strategies tailored to your specific needs
Created by: michelle219