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SYG Unit 2 Drills

Ch 5-8

of the following research topics, which most qualifies as research on the micro level doctor-patient relationships
which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, share the results
in the statement, "poverty causes crime," the words "poverty" and "crime" are best described as _____ because they are subject to change variables
in the research model, the step in which the researcher specifies what he or she wants to learn about a specific topic of study is called defining the problem
a statement that describes how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory, is known as a hypothesis
which of the following statements is best described as a hypothesis "unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men"
precise ways to measure variables in research so that comparisons can be made and replications can later be done are referred to as operational definitions
on of the early concerns of IQ tests was that they tested the subject's knowledge of the upper-class white culture of the scientists who developed them, and not the true educational potential of the person tested. the early IQ tests lacked validity
the term "_____" refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results. reliability
the methodical and exacting process by which a researcher measures a variable is known as operational definition
the choice of a research method is also referred to as the research design
he has administered his questionnaire to ten work groups at the same plant and on the same shift, but notes that the results among the groups are inconsistent. john's concern reflects the issue of the reliability of his measure
she has duplicated the study using sheldon's original methodology to see if her results are compatible to sheldon's. such a study illustrates the concept of replication
which research method involves collecting data by having people answer a series of questions survey
two programs that sociologists and many students use for quantitative analysis are microcase and spss
dr. zak is trying to determine what traits, if any, high-achieving students have that students who do poorly on his exams do not possess. to assess personal information from both groups of students, what research method should dr. zak probably use a survey
when reading a table, a comment located just below the title that gives more detailed information on how the data was collected or how the data are presented is called a headnote
in research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality that the sample must possess it must be representative of the total population
what is the defining characteristic of a random sample it gives each person in the population of interest an equal chance of being chosen
on a scale of 1 to 10, the scores the students registered were 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 9, 10. professor zanylo's mode score was _____ and his median score was _____ 9; 8
in his sample of 250 students, he is ensuring he has a proportionate number of students based on class standing, race, sex, and major course of study. walker's sample is an example of a(n) stratified random sample
michael is going to survey members of the gay and lesbian student union. to be most successful and receive the most valid responses, what should michael do michael should begin the questionnaire by asking neutral questions
what is the greatest flaw in using self-adminstered questionnaires for a research study they cause the researcher to lose control of the data collection
in order to sample a large number, but to keep the cost low, phillip should use _____ as a research method self-administered questionnaires
a researcher is asking questions of a serious nature, and a respondent gives only "socially acceptable" answers. this is an example of interviewer bias
in professor jones' social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "dr. j's class," and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. group
what term best applies to people who share a culture and a territory a society
what are the two characteristics a people must share to qualify as a society the same culture and the same territory
although it is the most egalitarian, what was the one social division common to all hunting and gathering societies prestige based on male labor
which society is characterized as being the most egalitarian and nomadic, consisting of 25 to 40 members the hunting and gathering society
the first social revolution, namely the domestication of animals and plants, occured approximately _____ years ago 10,000
the plow was to the second social revolution as the _____ was to the third social revolution invention of the steam engine
what was the impetus for the first social revolution the domestication of plants and animals
which society was the first to develop permanent settlements the horticultural society
with the domestication of plants and animals, a number of significant social changes occured. all of the following represent one of these changes, EXCEPT for which one societies became more egalitarian
the _____ is to the postindustrial society as the _____ is to the emerging biotech society microchip; decoding of the human genome system
the "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution agricultural
which of the following set the stage for the emergence of the earliest forms of social inequality the domestication revolution
which sociologist suggested that gender inequality became more pronounced with the development of the plow, as men assumed the duties of plowing and caring for the cattle elise boulding
why did the creation of the industrial society lead to greater social inequality the new technology was far more efficient than anything that preceded it, leading to larger surpluses and greater inequality
a society that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels is called a(n) _____ society industrial
what is the key feature of postindustrial societies as it relates to the work force the transmission and use of information services dominates the work force
which was the first nation to have an excess of 50 percent of its workforce in service industries the United States
some social analysts believe that postindustrial society will be followed by a biotech society. such a society would be characterized by an economy centering around the application of genetic structures
sociologically, what term best applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise an aggregate
there are new york yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. sociologically, which concept best decribes these fans they are a category
which phrase best describes primary groups as charles cooley envisioned them the springs of life
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a primary group
of the following groups, the _____ plays the most significant role in the development of the self. primary group
if a secondary group does not satisfy one's need for intimate association, which of the following is most likely to occur the secondary group will break down into primary groups
an approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is rationality
which of the following communities would be most aligned with the rational approach to life a nineteenth-century steel mill town in pennsylvania
in which two societies would someone find relationships based on history that are diffuse and long-term horticultural and agricultural societies
hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. which society is more likely to be industrialized the society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results will be industrialized
in which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line" the industrial and postindustrial societies
what is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life the past is the best guide for what should be done in the present
what is the widespread acceptance of using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs and the building of social organizations around this concept the rationalization of society
one of the first theorists to argue that the adoption of capitalism is responsible for the decline of traditional orientations to social life was _____ karl marx
the early theorist who proposed that religious beliefs are the key to whether or not a society embraces capitalism was _____ max weber
what was the specific protestant theology that influenced max weber's theories of social change and the development of the spirit of capitalism calvinism
which distinguishing feature of calvinism contributed to the rise of capitalism the belief that people were destined before birth for either heaven or hell
based on weber's research, which religious denomination was slow in accepting capitalism and dedicated to the acceptance of tradition roman catholicism
most sociologists would embrace which theorist's explanation for the development of rationality as the guiding force in modern society both views are equally shared by sociologists
the kkk, march of dimes, and boy scouts all have specific objectives that guide their operations. even though their respective activities and membership rosters indicate significant differences, all three would share the classification of being formal organizations
samantha works for an organization that is hierarchial and has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, one in which the administration treats workers impersonally. samantha works for a(n) _____ bureaucracy
in the bureaucratic structure of a medium-sized university, approximately where would one find the instructor for this course, provided that he or she is not the chair of the sociology at or near the bottom of the chart
a model that is a composite of the most efficient and highest-rated characteristics of many specific examples is called a(n) _____ ideal type
which sociologist is given credit for coining the concept of the "mcdonaldization of society" george ritzer
the university's administration has increased class size without receiving input from the faculty or considering that some courses need to have low enrollments. in view of this, what is the most probable reaction the professors will take more faculty members will feel they have lost ownership of their classes and are just "employees"
the experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a feeling of powerlessness, is called _____ alienation
patti sue is having difficulty adjusting to george, the new office supervisor. george is quite a "bean counter" and has shown a great deal of insensitivity toward everyone in the office. what action will the office workers take all the affected office workers will develop a greater sense of solidarity
tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. at his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of latst year's caribbean vacation. sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by tom to resist alienation
nick was a promising caseworker for an agency. after earning several lower-level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. supervisory work did not fit well with nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. this is an example of the Peter principle
sam feels he cannot handle the responsibilities of his latest promotion. in an effort to keep his newly acquired job title, sam has begun to take credit for the work done by the employees he supervises. sam's behavior is an example of the Peter principle
when the former soviet union collapsed, nato forces were no longer needeed to protect europe from a communist invasion. rather than disband nato, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. sociologists would call this shift in focus goal displacement
napoleon chagnon's visit to the yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of the cultural relativity of deviance
violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called _____ crimes
the concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements it is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant
the relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective symbolic interactionism
erving goffman used the term _____ to refer to characteristics that discredit people stigma
a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called _____ social order
what is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called social control
why did the "XYY" chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior most criminals do not have XYY and everyone with XYY is not a criminal
suicide bombers in iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the middle east and are considered heroic warriorsl such honor and praise is an example of a positive sanction
explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are most aligned with which discipline sociobiology
which of the following theories of deviance is least associated with sociobiology social learning theory: we learn deviance from our peers
the two disciplines that would be most concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are _____ and _____ sociobiology; psychology
the theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is _____ differential association theory
differential association theory was developed by sociologist _____ edwin sutherland
sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is most aligned with which sociological perspective? symbolic interactionist
based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents they are from families that have a history of being involved in crime
inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory control theory
the sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ______ walter reckless
according to control theory, when are inner controls most effective in deterring deviant behavior in the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society
susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. susie's decision in this situation demostrates a quality of control theory called _____ inner control
in which of the following settings would shaming be least effective a large inner-city neighborhood
ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called _____ degradation ceremonies
the term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist _____ harold garfinkel
in the scarlet letter, why was hester prynne required to wear a scarlet "a" on her dress sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming
the significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of _____ theory labeling
Created by: selfstudy08