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Stats Vocab Ch. 1

Sullivan Statistics - Informed Decisions Using Data

statistics The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions. In addition, statistics is about providing a measure of confidence in any conclusions.
data Facts or propositions used to draw a conclusion or make a decision. The list of observed values for a variable.
population The entire group of individuals to be studied.
individual A person or object that is a member of the population being studied
sample A subset of the population that is being studied.
statistic A numerical summary of a sample.
descriptive statistics Consists of organizing and summarizing data. Describe data through numerical summaries, tables, and graphs.
inferential statistics Uses methods that take a result from a sample, extend it to the population, and measure the reliability of the result. One goal is to estimate parameters.
parameter A numerical summary of a population.
the process of statistics 1. Identify the research objective 2. Collect the data needed to answer the question(s) posed in step 1 3. Describe the data 4. Perform inference
convenience samples Samples obtained through convenience rather than systematically, i.e. Internet or phone-in polls. Not based on randomness. Not considered reliable.
variables The characteristics of the individuals within the population.
qualitative variables Allow for classification of individuals based on some attribute or characteristic - sometimes called categorical variables.
quantitative variables Provide numerical measures of individuals. Math operations such as addition and subtraction can be performed on the values of a quantitative variable and will provide meaningful results.
discrete variable A quantitative variable that has either a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values. The values result from counting.
continuous variable A quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values that are not countable, but are instead measured.
observational study Measure the value of response variable w/out trying to influence the value of the response or explanatory variables. Researcher observes behavior of individuals in the study w/out trying to influence outcome. Association may be claimed but not causation.
designed experiment An experiment where the researcher assigns the individuals in a study to a certain group, intentionally changes the value of an explanatory variable, then records the value of the response variable for each group.
explanatory variable A variable that explains or causes changes in the response variable - sometimes called the predictor variable.
response variable A variable that measures an outcome or result of a study (variable whose changes are to be studied).
confounding variable An explanatory variable that was considered in a study whose effect cannot be distinguished from a second explanatory variable in the study.
lurking variable An explanatory variable that was not considered in a study, but that affects the value of the response variable in the study. Lurking variables are typically related to explanatory variables considered in the study.
census A list of all individuals in a population along with certain characteristics of each individual.
random sampling The process of using chance to select individuals from a population to be included in the sample.
simple random sampling Every possible sample of size n from a population of size N has an equally likely chance of occurring.
frame Lists all the individuals in a population.
stratified sample Obtained by separating the population into non-overlapping groups (called strata) and then obtaining a simple random sample from each stratum. The individuals within each stratum should be homogeneous in some way.
systematic sample Obtained by selecting every kth individual from the population. The first individual selected corresponds to a random number between 1 and k.
cluster sample Obtained by selecting all individuals within a randomly selected collection or group of individuals.
bias The results of the sample are not representative of the population.
sampling bias The technique used to obtain the individuals in the sample tends to favor one part of the population over another, and results due to undercoverage.
nonresponse bias When individuals selected in the sample who do not respond to the survey have different opinions from those who do respond to the survey.
response bias When the answers on a survey do not reflect the true feelings of the respondent.
control group Serves as a baseline treatment that can be used to compare it to other treatments.
placebo Is a treatment that looks just like the "real" treatments in the study.
single-blind experiements An experiment in which the experimental unit (subject) does not know which treatment he or she is receiving.
double-blind experiments An experiment in which neither the experimental unit (subject) nor the researcher in contact with the experimental unit knows which treatment the experimental unit is receiving.
treatment Any combination of the values of the factors in an experiment.
experimental unit (subject) A person, object, or some other well-defined item upon which a treatment is applied.
Created by: asmith456
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