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Ch15-Acids & Bases

a cation of a strong base is therefore ___ pH neutral
a cation is a small, highly charge metal ion (group I & II metal) is therefore ___ a weak acid
an cation is the conjugate acid of a weak base is therefore ___ a weak acid
an anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid is therefore ___ pH neutral
an anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid is therefore ___ a weak base
Strong acids HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Strong bases LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Sr(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
anions tend to form ___ whereas cations tend to form ___ basic or neutral; acidic or neutral
Give three example of acid found in the kitchen. sour juice such as lemon, vinegar, soda, wine, banana, coffe
What is the Arrhenius definition of acids and bases In an aqueous solution, an acid produces H+ and a base produces OH-
Give three example of base found in the kitchen. soap, baking soda, detergent, lye, drain, ammonia, blood, milk of magnesia
Define hydronium ion. How does this ion form? H+ ion produced from the breaking down of acid is highly reactive. This ion bonds to water molecules to form hydronium ion H30+
What is the reaction that takes place when water auto-ionize? H2O(l) + H2O(l) <-> H+ (aq) + OH-(aq)
Define Kw? Kw is the ion product constant for water at 25C
Define pH pH scale is used to measure the acidity of a solution. pH < 7 : acidic solution pH = 7 : neutral solution pH > 7 : basic solution
How can the hydronium ion concentration be calculated based on the pH? In chemistry, "p" stands for "-log". Hence, pH = -log[H+] or [H+] = 10^-pH. Since the pH scale is a log scale, a change of 1 pH unit = 10 fold change in [H30+]
Define pOH pOH is similar to the pH but respect to [OH-]. On pOH scale: pOH < 7 : basic pOH > 7 : acidic
Define pKa pKa = -log Ka. The smaller the pKa, the stronger the acid
What is the definition of a Lowry-Bronsted acid and base? An acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor. 2 substances related by the transfer of a proton are called conjugate acid-base pair
What is the chemical difference between strong acid and weak acid? Strong acids have strong electrolyte that ionizes (break up H+ ions) in solution 100% whereas weak acids under goes less than 100% dissociation
What is the chemical difference between strong base and weak base? Strong base have strong electrolyte that ionized (Break up OH-) in solution 100% whereas weak base under goes less than 100% of dissociation
What is the physical meaning for an acid when Ka <<1?
The concentration of an acid (or base) can be solve by treating the problem as an _____ problem. equilibrium problem
How does the percent ionization (a) change with concentration of an acid? Does it increase, decrease or not change?
What type of polyprotic acid is phosphoric acid? H3PO4; Triprotic
Why does the Ka’s of acids decrease after successive loss of H+ ? The removal of the next H+ is from a negatively charge spiece
What is the equilibrium constant called that indicates the strength of a base? Kb
What is the relationship between Ka and Kb for a conjugate pair ? Ka * Kb = Kw
Name two chemicals that exhibit amphoteric behavior? Water and N
What acid-base condition increases the solubility of BaF2? Explain
Name four factors affecting acid strength? Their Ka,
Determine if an aqueous solution has pH >, = or < 7 for: a. Salts from strong base and strong acids. b. Salts from strong base and weak acids c. Salts from weak base and a strong acid. d. NH 4 ClO salt solution.
What is the criteria in determining the strength of an organic acid?
Give one example of a Lewis acid and a Lewis base.
Place the following in order of increasing acid strength. a. HF, HI, HCl, HBr. b. NaH, HF, NH3, CH4 c HOI, HOI, HOBr d. HOCl4, HOCl, HOCl2, HOCl3
Name three chemicals found in the atmosphere that leads to the rain being acidic. NO2, CO2, SO2
Created by: michaeltrann