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GCSE Chemistry C1

What are all substances made up of? Atoms.
How many types of atom does an element contain? One.
How can different atoms bond together? By giving, taking, or sharing electrons to form compunds.
What is limestone mainly made of? Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
What is limestone used for? Building.
What happens when limestone is heated? Thermally decomposes.
What products are produced when limestone thermally decomposes? Quicklime + Carbon dioxide (Cao + CO2)
What happens to some carbonates when we heat them? They thermally decompose.
What makes a balanced equation? Equal numbers of each atom on each side of a chemical equation.
What is 'The Conservation of Mass'? Mass of reactants = Mass of products
What is produced when water is added to quicklime? Slaked Lime Ca(OH)3
How do you create lime mortar? Mixing Slaked lime with sand and adding water.
How is cement made? Heating limestone and clay in a kiln.
How is concrete made? Mixing crushed rocks, cement and sand with water.
How is glass made? Heating powdered limestone, sand and sodium carbonate very strongly.
How many elemets does the Earths crust contain? Many.
What is a metal ore? Something that contains enough metal to make it economically worth extracting the metal.
Are all metals found combined with other elements? No, unreactive elements such as gold are found pure in their natural state.
Why is the reactivity series useful in extracting metals? It helps decide the best way to extract a metal from its ore.
Can a metal more reactive than carbon be extracted by carbon? No.
How do we extract iron from iron ore? By reducing it with carbon in a blast furnace.
What are the raw materials used to make iron? Iron ore, coke, limestone.
Where is molten iron in the blast furnace? At the bottom,
Why isnt pure iron very useful? Too soft.
How can the properties of iron be changed? By adding controlled amounts of other elements are added to iron to make alloys of steel with different properties.
Name some metals alloyed with others to mak them more useful. Copper, Gold, Aluminium.
How can we control the properties of alloys? By adding different amounts of different elements.
What are smart alloys? When deformed, they return to original shape.
How can smart alloys be used? Medicine and dentistry.
Where are transition metals found in the periodic table? In the middle.
What do the properties of transition metals make them useful for? Building and construction.
Why is copper a useful transition metal? High conductivity.
Why are scientists looking for new ways to extract copper? Use less energy.
Why are titanium and aluminium useful? Resist corrosion.
Why are aluminium and titanium expensive? They need several stages and processes to be extracted which need a lot of energy.
Why is recycling aluminium important? We need to use less energy to extract 1kg of recycled than 1kg from ore.
hat is crude oil? A mixture of many compounds.
What are many of the compunds in crude oil? Hydrocarbons.
What are hydrocarbons? Compunds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
What are alkanes? Saturated hydrocarbons. Contain as much hydrogen as possible.
What is the general formula for an alkane? *=Subscript C*n*H*2n+2*
How do we seperate crude oil into fractions? Fractional distillation.
What do the properties of each fraction depend on? Size of molecules.
Which fractions make better fuels? Lighter.
What are the products when we burn a hydrocarbon in air? Carbon dioxide + Water
What could produce pollutants when burning a fuel? Impurities.
How can we change products made when burning a fuel?? Change conditions.
What does burning fuels release? Substances that spread throughout the atmosphere.
What happens to substances in the atmosphere? Some dissolve into water droplets, falling as acid rain.
Name greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide, water
What do greenhouse gases do? Reduces rate at which energy is lost by the surface of the Earth by radiation.
How might pollution produced by burning fuels be reduced? Treating products of combustion.
Which substances could be removed by treating products of combustion? Nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide.
What is cracking? Splitting large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones.
How do you 'crack' hydrocarbons? Heat long hydrocarbons and pass gas over a catalyst.
What does cracking produce? Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkenes.
What is the general formula for an alkene? C*n*H*2n*
How do you test for an unsaturated substance? Turns bromine water colourless.
Do alkenes burn? Yes.
What are plastics made of? Polymers.
What are polymers? Large molecules made when monomers join together.
What affects the properties of polymers? The monomers they are created from.
What affects the type of polymer produced? Changing reaction conditions.
What are the advantages of polymers? New polymers are being developed with properties that make them suited for certain purposes.
What are smart polymers? Polymers that may have their properties changed by light, temperature or other changes in their surroundings.
How are vegetable oils extracted? From plants by pressing or distillation.
Why are vegetable oils important? They are important foods.
What do all unsaturated oils contain? Carbon - Carbon double bond.
Why are vegetable oils useful in cooking? High melting points.
How are the boiling points of vegetable oils increased? Hardening-(hydrogenation)
What is hydrogenation? Reacting a vegetable oil with hydrogen, breaking the double bond and making them saturated.
What can be used to produce emulsions with special properties? Oils.
What are emulsions made from vegetable oils used for? Foods such as salad dressings and ice cream.
Why do we use additives? To improve foods appearance, taste, and shelf life.
Name some additive types. Colours, preservatives, antioxidants, emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, acidity regulators flavourings.
How can you identify additives? Chromatography.
What can vegetable oils be used for other than cooking? Burned as fuels.
What are the advantages of using vegetable oil as a fuel? Renewable.
Created by: james1234190