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# AP Stats Unit 3 Test

### Unit 3 (Chapter 5)

What is an observational study? observes individuals and measures variables but does not impose a treatment
What is an experiment? imposes a treatment on individuals and observes their response
What is a population? group of individuals that we want info about
What is a sample? the part of the population that we are examining to gather info
What is a census? contacting every individual in a population to gain information
Voluntary response sample? consists of people who choose to respond (non random)
Convenience sampling? contact individuals easiest to reach (non random)
What is a simple random sample (SRS)? gives everyone in each group the same chance of being chosen. Chosen by using random digits table F, label each individual, and read numbers to select them
What is a stratified random sample? divide the population into strata (groups by similarity) and select a SRS for each strata. Then combine the selected groups to provide the sample
What is a multi stage sample? select naturally occurring groups in a population and choose SRS within each group
What is a systematic random sample? order the population, randomly select the starting point, and select every nth item based on your sample size
What is bias? systematic errors in the way a sample represents the population
What is voluntary response bias? only those with a strong opinion take the time to respond
What is undercoverage bias? when the design of the sample leaves out certain parts of the population
What is nonresponse bias? people have been contacted but don't respond or people that were select can't be contacted
What is response bias? the person responding might lie
What is question wording bias? when the question is not clear or written with strong words for/against the topic
What are experimental units? the individuals on which the experiment is done
What is a treatment? a specific condition being applied to the units (explanatory variable)
What is a factor? a level of the treatment
What is the placebo effect? when patients respond favorably to a treatment even though they are actually taking the placebo. they are responding to the ides of the treatment not the actual treatment
What is the control group? the group of individuals that receive a sham treatment which enables the researcher to control the effects of lurking variables and the placebo effect
What are the principles of experimental design? control, randomize, replicate, and block design
What is a completely randomized design? when all experimental units are allocated at random
What is a double blind experiment? the researcher and the experimental units know what treatment they are recieving
What is a matched pairs design? 2 identical groups based on characteristics of individuals or 1 group gets both treatments (randomly decide which group gets which treatment)
What is a block design? when you group the experimental units based on a lurking variable before conducting the experiment then give a treatment to the blocks
What is a confounding variable? those that affect other variables in a way that produces spurious or distorted associations between two variables.
What is a lurking variable? variable that is not included as an explanatory or response variable in the analysis but can affect the interpretation of relationships between variables
What is a simulation? imitation of chance behavior, a model that accurately reflects the experiment
What are the steps to make a simulation? state (the problem/describe experiment), plan (how will you use chance to imitate the process, tell what you will record), do, conclude (use results to answer question of interest)
Created by: egg!
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