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chem ch 10


polymerization making monomers into polymers
polymers are composed of macromonomers
polymer is made from molecules called monomers
natural polymers are made of (3things) sugars, amino acids and nucleic acids
examples of natural polymers include starches, proteins, wood, wool, cotton and silk
starcg is a polymer made of glucose
cotton is a polymer made of cellulose
wood is a polymer made largly of cellulose
proteins are polymers made of amino acid monomers
nucleic acid is a polymer made of nucleotides with bases
celluloid is a ____material synthetic
cellulose is treated with nitric acid what is formed cellulose nitrate
john wesley hyatt found a way to soften cellulose nitrate so that it could be molded in to billard balls, instead of ivory
john wesley hyatt softened callulose nitrate by treating it with ethyle alcohol and camphor
celluloids uses include billard balls, movie film, stiff collars, gunpowder
calluloid is no longer on the market becuase other substitutes are available, it has dangerous flamability
the first truely synthetic polymers were _____made in___ phenol-formaldehyde resins made in 1909
simplest and least expensive polymer polyethylene
leobaekeland created bakelite synthesizzed from addidtion reactions
what three things were needed in addition reactions for synthetics heat, presssure, and catalyst
polyethylene is used for plastic bags, packaging fruit, garment bads, garbage can liners
polyethylene is made from ethylene un unsaturated hyrdocasrbon
ethylene (what it is generally) an unsaturated hydrocarbon
ethylene (produced?) produced in large quanitites form the cracking of petroleum
ethylene monomers join in long chains under what conditions pressure and heat in the presence of a catalyst
CH2=CH2+CH2=CH2... polyethylene molecule
qualities of polyethylene tough and flexible, good electirc insulator, withstand high and low temps.
british used what for their radar in ww2 polyethylene
two principal kinds of polyethylene HDPE's (high density polyethylens) and LDPEs (low density polyehtylenes)
two different kinds are produced by using different catalysts and different reaction condictions
characteristics of HDPE's (5) linear molecules, packed closely together, odered crystaline structure, rigid, strong
HDPE's are used for botle caps, toys, bottles and gallon milk jugs
characteristics of LDPE's (5) many side chains branching, prevent molecules from packing closely, no crystaline structure, waxy and bendable, lower melting points(wil lose form in boiling water)
LDPE's are used for plastic bags, plastic film, squeeze bottles
buckyballs (what are they who discovered them, what did they lead to) c60 ect. made of only carbon molecules led to nanotubes discovered by buckminster
buckyballs made of what shape hexagons and pentagons...they make a circleish shape
is polyethylens thermosetting or thermoplastic polymer thermoplastic
three characteristics of thermoplastics (all say prettymuch the same thing) 1. can be softened by heat and pressure and then reshaped 2. can be melted down and remodleled 3. recyclable
why are thermo plastics recyclable becuase the branched ,olecules slide past one another when heat and pressure are applied
US production of thermoplastics and how many were polyethylene 32billion kg of thermplastics, 13kg were polyethylene
four characteristics of thermosetting 1. harden perminantly when formed 2. cant be softened by heat and remodeled 3. strong heat causes them to discolor and decompose 4. can be sterilized with heat at hospitals and wont melt
why is thermosetting so heat resistant have a crosslinkage in polymere chains
Two types of polymerization reactions 1. addition 2. condensation
addition polymerization monomer molecules add to one anothe rin such a way that the polymeric product contains all the atoms of the starting monomers
condensation polymerization a portion of the monomer molecule is not incorpooratied in the final polymer but is split out as the polymer is formed
many of the familiar addition polymers made from deivatices of ethylene
in polypropylene (a derivative of ethylene) the hydrogen atoms are replaced by _______ a menthy group
characteristics of polypropylene (4) 1. tough plastic material 2. resistant to moisure oils and solvents 3. high melting point (121C) 4. can be sterilized with steam 5. microwaveable
examples of polypropylene luggage, battery case, appliance parts, upholstry fabrics, carpets, ropes that float
what changes in making polypropylkene the ethylene...-H is changed to -CH3
in polystyrene the derivative ethylene is changed in what way a hydrogen atom is replaced with a benzene ring.....hence the name styrene
the formula for polystyrene C6H5CH=CH2
in the polystyrene formula what part is the benzene ring C6H5
polymerization of styrene produces _______ polystyrene
what is formed when gas is blown into polystyrene styrofoam
how is vinyl chloride made replacing one of the hyrdrogen atoms of ethylene with a chlorine atom
what is the formula for vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl
polymerization of vinyl chlolride yields PVC- polyvinyl chloride
is PVC thermosetting or thermoplastic thermoplastic
the monomer from which vinyl plastics are made is a carcinogen
angiosarcoma cancer developed from people who worked closely with vunyl chloride gas
characteristics of PVC (4) 1. tough synthetic material 2. looks like leather 3. really cheap 4. can be formed into various shapes
examples of vinyl polymers plastic wrap, pluming, plastic bottles, artificial leather, floor tile, shower curtain, pipes
40 percent of PVC is molded into pipes
what is the formula and other name for polyvinylidene chloride H2C=CCl2 saran
what are two uses for saran food wrap and seat covers
what is the formula for tetrafluroethylene CF2=CF2
the polymerization of tetrafluroethylene produces (three names) polytetraflurothylene (PTFE) or teflon
in teflon the H atoms were replaced by what before it was polymerized fluorine
characteristics of teflon c-F bonds are exceptionally strong 2. resistance to heat 3. unreactive 4. nonflammable 5. nonsticking properties
PTFE was ___discovery serendipitus
examples of PTFE electric insulation, bearings, gaskets, coat skillets
what is the monomer for teflon F2C=CF2
in PVC what replaces the other H Cl
a plastic material, in chemistry.... is one that can be made to flow under heat and pressure
compression molding heat and pressure are applied directly to the polymer powder in the mold cavity
transfer molding powder is softened by heating outsid ethe mold and then poured in the mold to harden
injection molding plastic is melted in a heating chamber and then forced by plunger into cold molds to set
extrusion molding the melted polymer is extruded through a die in continuous form to be cut into lengths or coiled
_____polymers have the highest production colume in the plastics industry addition
this polymer is able to conduct electricity polyacetylene
first conducting polymer discovered in 1970 poly acetylene
natural rubber can be broken down into the simple hydrocarbon called isoprene
natural rubber is known to be composed of macromolecules
isoprene is a _____liquid volatile
_____is identical to rubber in everyway except its from petroleum instead of trees polyisoprene
four characteristics of rubber 1. natural polymer 2. semisolid 3. elastic material
______was the polymer that was the basis for much of the development of the synthetic polymer industry RUBBER!
ghost crystals water absorbing polymers
polyacetylene (2 caracterisics) electrically conducting ;llooks metallic
nitrated cellulose (2 things) very flamable, gun cotton, flash paper
when nitrated cellulose is burt what is left nitric acid residu
who did vulcanization charles goodyear
how can rubber be made harder reacting it with sulfur aka vulcanization
vulcanization crosslinking hydrocarbon chains with sulfur atoms to make it harder
date goodyear discovered vulcanization 1844
elastomeres materials that act in a stretchable way
improvements to rubber due to vulcanization (five) 1. harder2.stronger 3. suitable for auto tires 4. improves elasticity (acts as an elastomere) 5. increases melting point
natural rubber is a polymer of _____ isoprene
polybutadien is a synthetic rubber made from the monomer butadine that differs from isoprene in that... it lacks a menthyl group in the second carbon atom
downside of polybutadiene only has fair tensile strench and poor resistance to gas and oils (no good for auto use)
polychloroprene made from isoprene but __replaces the methyl group chlorine
qualitites of polychloroprene better oil and gasoline resistance than other elastomers
polychloroprene is also known as neoprene
neoprene is used to make gasoline hoses
styrene-butadience rubber is an example of copolymerization
in copolymerization a copolymer is formed from two or more different monomers
sbr the copolymer includes (with percentages) 25%styrene and 75% butadiene
pros and cons of SBR more resistant to oxidation and abrasion but mechanical properites are less satisfactual
____accounts for a third of the total production of elastomers one third
SBR is used mainly for making tires
copolymerization uses the ___reaction addition
nylon 66 1,6 hexane diamine
three synthetic rubbers 1. polybutadiene 2. polychloroprene (neoprene) 3. styrene-butabriene (SBR)
binder substance in paint that hardens to form a continuous suface coating
what is the oil in these paints linseed
why is condensation polymer different from addition? in condensation part of the monomer molecule is not incorporated in the final polymer
what happens in condensation molecule (generally) small molecules like water are spit out
dacron is what plus what glycol +terephthalic acid
main example of polyamides nylon
one nylon has a ___ plus a ____ carboxylic acid with an amino group
two polyamides are nylon 6 and nylon 66
original nylon polymer discovered in ____ by ___ 1937 by dupont chemist wallace carothers
some natural polyamides include slik and wool...fibers
polyester is made from molecules with ___and ___ alcohol and carboxylic acid functional groups
most common polyester is made from (2things ethylene glycol and terephythaloc acid
most common polyester is called polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
uses of PET bottles for beverages, formed as film , fibers for wash and wear clothing
the fist synthetic polymer bakelite
bakelite was synthesized by ___in ___ leo bakeland 1909
bakelite's big name phenolformaldehyde resin
how are phenoformaldehyde resin's formed splitting out water molecules and oxygen molecules from the aldehyde
major characteristic of thermosetting resins cannon be melted or remodeled
polycarbonates aka lexane
lexane used for bulletproof windown and protective helmets
polyerethanes used for foamed padding, cushons, mattresses, skate wheels
epoxy resisns used for surface coatins, powerful adhesives, strong bonding
composite materials are made of __ and helfd together by high strength fibers....polymeric matrix
composite materials ex. tennis rackets, fiberglass, boat hulls, molded chairs
silicones are based on alternating ___ and ___atoms sulfer and oxygen
silicones can be _ _ or _ networks linear, cyclic or cross linked
characterisitcs of silicones 1. heat stable 2. resistant to most chemicals 3. good for waterproofing
silicone uses sinthetic bodyparts, lubricants, hair supply, fabric coatings, polish
a silicone toy is silly putty
main quality of crystaline and reason strength ... molecules are line dup neatlyu
Amorphus main quality and reson flexibility, elasticity, because of randomly oriented molecules and tabgle with one another.. make good elastomeres
both types mixed together = SPANDEX tensile strength of crystaline plus elasticity of amorphys rubber ex. lycra
copolymer spandex
glass transition temperature Tg
above thermoplastic polymers Tg temperature rubbery and tough
below thermoplastic polymers Tg glasslike, hard stiff brittle
rubber tires low Tg
glass substitute high Tg
tire Tg approx 50C
a coffee cups Tg approx 120C
plastic jacket 0C
why ice gets gum off cloths lowes temp to below Tg to make it brittle
four ways to dispose of plastics landfills, incineration, degradable plastics, recycling
plastics make up __% of waste in the US by MASS and __% by VOLUME 8 and 21 percent
incineration burning plastics
degrading plastics make them biodegradable or photodegradable,, but then shelf time is degraded
recycling best way
recycling examples milk jugs (HDPE) recycled to detergent bottles and PET soda bottles to fiber for carpets
what two things can be added to make fabrics more flame retardant chlorine and bromine (common in childrens sleepwear)
nomex flame retardent used for fire fighters and race car drivers
plasticizer lowers Tg makes them less brittle
PCB's used to be used now banned as plasticizer
most widely used plasticiver today is phthalate ester
___ is the new PCB DDT
Created by: zielske