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# Force, Motion &Waves

### Study material for our Physics Unit

Kinectic Energy Energy of movement like a person running
Potential Energy Stored energy such as a person sitting
Speed The distance covered in an amount of time (speed equals distance divided by time)
Velocity The direction of movement (velocity equals displacement divided by time)
Acceleration When an object speeds up, slows down, or changes direction (is shown as a curve on a graph)
Force mass x acceleration
Balanced force An object that is not moving
Unbalanced force An object that is accelerating
Net force The total amount of force on an object
Intertia An objects resistance to change in motion
Weight Measures how much gravity is pulling down on an object and this can change depending on the gravitational pull present (weight equals mass x accelertation due to gravity)
Gravity The force of a planet pulling on an object (Earth's is 9.8 meters/second squared)
Work Force x Distance
Medium Any type of matter including soilds, liquids, and gases
Mechanical wave Waves that travel though matter by creating vibrations in a medium
Electromagnetic Waves that do no require a medium and can travel through empty space
Crest The top of the wave
Trough The bottom of the wave
Wavelength Measure of distance from one point on a wave to the next corresponding point
Frequency The count of either the number of crests or the number of troughs that pass through a point in a given amount of time
Amplitude The measure of the wave's height from the resting position
Spring Scale A tool which measure force in Newtons
Mass How much matter an object is made up of.
Compressional Wave Waves whose particles move in the same direction that the wave travels
Distance Space between two objects
Momentum The product of the mass and velocity of an object
Resistance Any mechanical force that tends to oppose motion
Friction The resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact with another
Power The rate of doing work; measured in watts
Transverse Wave Any wave in which the direction of disturbance is perpendicular to the direct of travel
Compression The process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together
Rarefaction A decrease in the density of something; The part of a longitudinal wave which is stretched out, where as a compression is the part which is pushed together