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# Waves

### AS91170 - 2.3

Light's Occurance Electromagnetic waves that travel in straight lines.
Higher frequency equals? A larger object.
Speed of Light (Vacuum) 3 x 10^{8} ms^{-1}
Light travels in? Anything, it doesn't require a medium.
Wavelengh from longest to shortest? ROYGBIV
Reflection Incident ray hitting a surface to form a reflected ray.
Reflection Rule Angle of incidence = anlge of reflection.
Plane Mirror Images Same size, same direction and are virtual.
Lateral inversion When an object in a mirror is inverted.
Concave Mirrors Curved inwards with light converging to a single point and have real focal points.
Convex Mirrors Curved outwards, light diverging and the focal point behind/inside the mirror.
Focal Point Point all rays of light are reflected to.
Pole Position of the mirror that the principal axis passes through.
Focal Length Distance between the pole and the focal point.
Centre of Curvature The point that would be the centre of the circle if the mirror was extended into a circle.
Radius of Curvature The radius that would be created if the mirror was extended into a circle, measured from centre of curvature to pole.
Refraction The change in speed of light as it enters or exits a medium of different optical density, direction may change.
Refraction - Speed Slowing Light has entered a more optically dense medium and the angle of indidence is greater than the angle of refraction.
Refractive Index The degree to which a medium refracts light. The greater the index the more light refracted.
Total Internal Reflection Can only occur when light travels from a denser medium into a less dense medium. Angle of refraction is 90 and the critical angle is the angle of incidence.
Biconvex Lenses Light ray converge after refracting and the image produced will be real.
Biconcave Lenses Light rays diverge after refracting, the image produced will be virtual.
Waves A regular pattern of disturbance that transfers energy from one position to another, the medium of travel will revert back to normal after a wave passes through it.
Pulses A single disturbance, can transmit energy, when two pulses meet their energies combine instantly.
Mechanical Waves Require a medium.
Transverse Waves Particles are oscillating at 90 to the direction of travel, at equilibrium the creats are nodes and the troughs are antinodes.
Wavelength Distance between successive peaks or troughts or successive compressions and rarefractions.
Amplitude Maximum distance from peaks or troughts to the equilibrium position.
Longitudinal Waves Particles more parallel to the direction of the wave.
Compressions Clumps of particles in longitudinal waves.
Rarefractions Spread-out areas in longitudinal waves.
Frequency The number of waves that pass a point per second (Hz).
Period The time for successive creats or troughts to pass a point.
Displacement/Time Graphs Shows how the wave changes over time. Allows for the period and amplitude to be read.
Displacement/Position Graphs Shows how the wave changes at different places. Allows for wavelengh to be read.
Pitch The frequency of a sound wave - the higher the frequency the the higher the pitch.
Loudness Related to the sound wave's amplitude, louder amplitude = louder sound.
Wavefronts Represents waves travelling through a medium, shows the peaks of waves at a 'bird's-eye view'
Diffraction Occurs when waves pass through gaps or bend around barriers. There will be more curve when the wavelength is longer than the opening.
From Shallow to Deep (Refraction of Wavefronts). Wave speeds up, bends away from the normal and wavelength increases, but frequency remains the same.
From Deep to Shallow (Refraction of Wavefronts). Wave slows down, bends toward the normal and wavelength decreases. Frequency remains the same.
In Phase Points along a wave undergoing a similar motion are in phase.
Out of Phase Points along a wave undegoing the exact opposite motion.
Determining Phase Multiply by 360 - if 360 then points are in phase, if 180 than points exactly out of phase.
Reflection of Pulses, Free End When a pulse meets a free end all of its energy is reflected back in the same orientation - there is no phase change.
Reflection of Pulses, Fixed End When a pulse meets a fixed end all of its energy is reflected back inverted - ther is a phase change.
Refraction of Pulses, Less Dense to More Dense Some energy continues on into the denser medium and the remainder is reflected, the denser medium if treated as the fixed end - refelcted wave will be out of phase.
Refraction of Pulses, More Dense to Less Dense Some energy continues on into the less dense medium and the remainder is reflected.
Amplitude of Intial Pulse Amp of reflected pulse + amp of refracted pulse.
Wave Superposition When two waves interact as they travel pass one another.
Constructive Interference When two pulses are the same orientation, their displacements add up to produce a resultant wave that is larger then the inital pulse.
Destructive Interference When two pulses with opposite orientations meet, their disp;acements subract to products a resultant wave that is smaller than the inital pulse.
Standing Waves Produced when two waves with equal amp and frequency travel in opposite directions, a new wave is formed but appears to be standing still.
Standing Waves, Antinodes Places of very large amplitude oscillation.
Standing Waves, Nodes Places of zero amplitude or complete destructive interference.
Two Point Source Interference Produces curved wavefronts, created by two gaps in a barrier (diffraction), two sound sources (circular) or two point sources in water. All contexts rely on wavefronts being in phase and wavelengths being equal.
Two Point Source Interference, Constructive Interference Occurs when troughs meet troughs and creats meet crests, referred to as antinodes and a maximum is formed.
Two Point Source Interferenve, Destructive Interference Occurs when troughs meets crests. referred to as nodes, there is no displacement an a mnimum is formed.
Nodal and Antinodal Lines, Constructive Interference Occurs when the path difference (m) = n{\lambda} (n = 0, 1, 2,…)
Nodal and Antinodal Lines, Destructive Interference Occurs when the path difference (m) = (n + ½){\lambda} (n = 0, 1, 2,…)
Nodal and Antinodal Lines, Central Maxima Positions with a path difference of zero and that run through the centre of the pattern.
Created by: hucklefruitfinn
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