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MC CHEM 101 Ch 4

Montgomery College CHEM 101 Chapter 4

Stoichiometry A study of quantitative relations between reactants and products in chemical equations
Reaction Yields Theoretical yield Actual yield Precent yield
Theoretical Yield The amount of product that should form based on the limiting reagent and the stoichiometry involved
Actual Yield The actual amount of product does form
Precent Yield % Yield= actual yield/theoretical yield x 100
Limiting Reactants a reactant that has the smallest stoichiometric amount in a reactant mixture and consequently limits the amount of the product in a chemical reaction.
Determining Limiting Reactant determine the amount of product that could be formed by each reactant. The reactant which results in the least amount of product is the limiting reactant
5 Common types of reactions 1. Combustions 2. Combination 3. Decomposition 4. Single Replacement 5. Double Replacement
Combustion combination of anything with oxygen
Balancing Combustion Reactions involving only C and H or compounds containing only C H and O 1. O2 is a reactant 2. CO2 and H2O are products 3. Balance C first 4. Balance H second 5. Balance O last
Combination (Synthesis) 2 substances combine to form one product
Decomposition One compound decomposes into several elements or compounds
Decomposition with Metal Carbonates decomposes to form CO2 and the metal oxide
SIngle Replacement one element replaces another element in a compound. THis type of reaction occurs mainly in solutions
Double Displacement 2 compounds exchange partners. COmmonly called an "exchange reaction". These are important in solutions. Precipitation commonly occur
Four types of Double Displacement 1. Precipitation Reaction 2. Gas Forming Reaction 3. Acid/Base Reaction 4. Oxidation Reduction Reaction
Precipitation Reaction A solid forms
Gas Reaction H or OH will produce water -Sulfides - Carbonates produce water and CO2 -Sulfites produce water and SO2 -Ammonium produce water and NH3
Acid/base reactions H and OH produce water
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Solution and Solute
Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
Solute substance that disolves
if it dissociates in water it conducts electricity
strong electrolyte ionic compounds that dissociate completely in solutions which conducts electricity very well (salts, strong acids, strong bases).
Strong acids HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HNO3, H2SO4
Strong bases Group IA, IIA metal hydroxides except Be
Strong Salts NA+, K+, NH4+, NO3-
Weak Electrolytes weak acids/weak bases that only partially dissociate in solution (also most insoluble salts) NH3, HC2H3O2
Non Electrolytes substances that do not dissociate at all, they dissolve, but do not separate into ion and do not conduct electricity (nonmetals, covalent (molecular) compounds) like sugar and alcohols
Water is a polar molecule. it has a negative end ad a positive end. because of this it dissociates ionic substances
solubility Salts of 1A, NO3-, NH4+ will always dissolve
strong electrolytes dissociate 100% in water
Arrhenius definition an acid is a substance that produces H+ in solutions. A base is a substance that produces OH-in solution
strong acids***** HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4
Weak acids**** Dissociate only 5-10%-- HC2H3O2, H2CO3, H3PO4
Strong bases**** NaOH, KOH, (Group IA and IIA, except Be)
Weak Bases**** NH3
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HBr Hydrobromic acid
HI Hydroiodic Acid
HNO3 Nitric Acid
H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid
HClO4 Perchloric acid
HC2H3O2 Acetic Acid WEAK ACID
HF Hydrofluroic acid WEAK ACID
NaOH Sodium Hydroxide
LiOH Lithium hydroxide
KOH Potassium Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hydroxide
Ba(OH)2 Barium Hydroxide
Ionic equations do not break up solid, liquid and gases--balance charges---
Net ionic equations list everything that changes in state, charge or
neutralizations reaction between acid and base. acid and metal hydroxide produces water and a salt
Molarity Moles solute/ liters solution
Dilutions M1xV1=M2xV2
Created by: amzago