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# Stats terms

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is Statistics? | the science of collecting, organizing and analyzing data. |

What is data? | Values that variables can assume. |

what are the two kinds of Stats | Descriptive and Inferential. |

What are Descriptive Stats? | When you collect your own data, organize it and analyze it. |

What are inferential Statistics? | When the study is based on research that already exists. |

What is a sample? | A group of subjects being studied from a larger population. |

What are the types of Sampling? | Random, Cluster, Stratified, Systematic and Convenience |

What is random Sampling? | Sample group selected by chance not by hand or target. |

What is Cluster sampling? | Dividing into categories or groups to collect data |

What is Stratified Sampling? | Creating groups of characteristic important to a study then sampling from each group. |

What is Systematic Sampling? | When people are chosen systematically, every xth subject. |

What is Convenience Sampling? | When Data is collected in the most convenient way to you. |

What are the four levels of measurement? | Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio |

What is Nominal Level of Measurement? | Organizing data into sections where no-order or ranking can take place. |

What is Ordinal Level of Measurement? | classifying data into rank-able categories that do not have much difference. |

What is Interval Level of Measurement? | Data is ranked and precise differences between units of measure do exist. There is no real zero (temperature) |

What is ratio level of Measurement? | Data can be sorted into different measured categories with distinct meanings between each and a distinct true zero. |

What are the two kinds of Data? | Qualitative and Quantitative |

What is a Qualitative Variable? | Variables that can be divided into distinct categories according to a characteristic or attribute. |

What is a Quantitative Variable? | Variables that can be measured ranked or ordered with numerical values. |

What are the two kinds of Quantitative data? | Discrete and continuous. |

What is a Discrete Variable? | Definitive number, assume they can be counted |

What is a continuous Variable? | Can assume an infinite number of values between any two specific values, (decimals or fractions) |

What are the three types of Study? | Observational, Quasi-Experimental and Experimental |

What is an Observational Study? | Research is conducted by merely observing a present or past event and drawing their own conclusions. |

What is an Experimental Study? | Researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation determines the other variables. |

What is a Quasi-Experimental Study? | A study that attempts to create a cause and effect relationship and is not randomized. |

What is a measurement Scale? | How variables are categorized, counted or measured wither nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio. |

What is a Variable? | A measurable characteristic or attribute that can vary in value predictions. |

What is a treatment Group? | A group in an experiment that receives specific instructions/treatment. |

What is the population? | Population consists of all subjects that are being studied. |

What is probability? | The odds or chances of a specific event occurring. |

What is a random variable? | Variables that are chosen by chance. |

What is a control group? | A group that is not exposed to variables in the experiment. |

What is a data set? | A collection of data. |

What is a Data Value Or Datum ? | Each Specific data point in the data set. |

What is the Hawthorne Effect? | When participants know they are part of an experiment and their behavior changes. |

What is Hypothesis testing? |