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# Stats Ch. 2 Vocab

TermDefinition
Area principle In a statistical display, each data value should be represented by the same amount of area
Frequency table A frequency table lists the categories of a categorical variable and gives the number of observations of each category
Relative frequency table A relative frequency table lists the categories of a categorical variable and gives the fraction or percent of observations of each category
Distribution The distribution of a variable gives the possible values of the variable and the relative frequency of each value
Bar chart Bar charts show a bar whose area represents the count of observations for each category of a categorical variable
Pie chart Pie charts show how a "whole" divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose are corresponds to the proportion in each category
Categorical Data Condition Basically just use these methods for CATEGORICAL data, not quantitative (Ch. 2)
Contingency table Table that displays counts/percentages of individuals falling into named categories on two/more variables. It categorizes individuals on all variables at once, revealing possible patterns in 1 variable that may be contingent on the category of the other.
Marginal distribution In a contingency table, the distribution of either variable alone is called the marginal distribution. Counts/percentages are the totals found in the margins (last row/column) of the table.
Conditional distribution The distribution of a variable restricting the 'who' to consider only a smaller group of individuals is called a conditional distribution
Segmented bar chart Bar chart w/ bars stacked on top of each other in vertical graph/lined up side-by-side in horizontal graph. Shows relative frequencies so that the distribution of categorical variable is more easily compared between groups.
Independence Conditional distribution of one variable is same for each category of the other; no association between variables
Side-by-side bar chart Bar chart which interweaves the bars of 2/more conditional distributions to facilitate their contrast. BE CAREFUL READING/USING
Mosaic plot A mosaic plot is a special kind of segmented bar chart whose bars' widths display the marginal distribution of the variable represented y the bars
Simulation A random reenactment of data collection under one or more assumptions. If real data look very different from simulated data, then assumptions are called into question
Simpson's paradox When averages are taken across different groups, they can appear to contradict the overall averages.
Created by: auddity
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