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RCP 120 Exam 1

What does the Mantoux skin test look for? TB or exposure to TB
What steps can respiratory therapists take to avoid the introduction of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)? Wearing the correct PPE (Gown, gloves, and mask), Following isolation protocols and hand washing.
What is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year of age? Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
What is an important opportunistic fungal respiratory pathogen for Respiratory Therapist's to know? Candida albicans (thrush)
Why is the incidence of otitis media higher in children? The pharyngotympanic tubes are more horizontal and can collect debris easier but don't drain as easily
What are the reasons why antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in hospitals? Misuse and overuse of antibiotics. Resistant bacterial strains become a part of the indigenous flora.
What are the common community-acquired lower respiratory pathogens? Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Virusses
What are the characteristics of viruses? Highly contagious, some are seasonal, use isolation precautions when sick, grow only when they are attached to a host.
When pus is present, that is known as Empyema
What are the medications used to treat tuberculosis? Rifampin and Rifabutin
What are the medications used to treat RSV? Ribavirin
What are the medications used to treat MRSA? Vancomycin
What are the common opportunistic pathogens that effect AIDS and weakened immune systems? Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pneumocystis pneumonia (jiroveci), tuberculosis, Pnemocycstic carinii (PCP)
What medications are used to treat fungal infections such as thrush? Antifungals, Nystatin, and Diflucan (Fluconazole)
List medications that are classified as antibacterial (antibiotics)? Penicillin's, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, tobramycin
Identify the criteria that must be met to obtain a useful sputum specimen Fewer than 25 squamous cell per low power field More than 10 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per low power field
What antibiotics are often used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Cephalosporins
What are symptoms of TB and how do we test for TB? Fever, night sweats, blood-tinged sputum, chronic cough, and weight loss (Chest x-ray, Mantoux test, Acid fast)
What aerosolized medications are used to treat Pneumocystis carinii (PCP)? Pentamidine
What does the Flat percussion sound represent? Can indicate a solid area such as bone
What does dull percussion sound represent? Can indicate that fluid or consolidation is present
What does a hype resonant percussion sound represent? Can indicate that you're over an air filled space
What does a resonant percussion sound mean? Can indicate healthy lung tissue
What does a tympanic percussion sound mean? Can indicate excessive air
What is a chest wall abnormality seen in emphysema patients that results in an increased A-P diameter? Barrel chest
What term is used to describe a persistent rate of respirations greater than 20 breaths per minute Tachypnea
What are the common sterilization methods? Autoclave, Ethylene oxide gas, glutaraldehydes
What is autoclaving? Heat in the form of steam, uses heat and pressure over a specific period of time
What is aspiration (in equipment cleaning)? Sterile saline drawn through lumen of equipment, tested and cultured
What is swabbing? Irregular surfaces are swabbed and spread on petri dish
What is plating? Spread surface on petri dish
Which of the following techniques would you recommend as best able to evaluate the effectiveness the pasteurization process? Culture sampling
What is standard precaution and what PPE should be worn? Protects against any undiagnosed illness or unknown illness Gloves and Mask (Gown and googles needed when handling blood/fluids) All patients
What is contact precaution and what PPE should be worn? Protects against transmission of microorganisms by direct/indirect contact. In addition to standard, gloves and gown should be discarded before exiting. Gown, gloves.
What is airborne precaution and what PPE should be worn? Protects against microorganisms that spread in the air. Isolation and HEPA filter Mask, gown, gloves, goggles
What is droplet precaution and what PPE should be worn? Protects against microorganisms that spread via droplet. Isolation. Mask, gown, glove
What is the difference between droplets and airborne illnesses Airborne is evaporated droplet nuclei smaller than 5 micrometers. Droplet transmission occurs when droplets are later than 5 micrometers.
How often do we change ventilator circuits? When there is visual or known contamination of the circuit or malfunctions
Human sources of infection include? Patients, healthcare personnel, family members, and visitors
What are the common routes of disease transmission? Direct contact, indirect contact, airborne, droplet, vehicle, and vector
What is symptom? Something apparent to the patient
What is diagnosis? The overall reason for the symptoms
What is chief complaint? Main reason or issue the patient came to be seen/ was admitted
What is History of Present Illness? What happened that led to the chief complaint (OLDCART) Onset, Location, Duration, Character, Associated manifestation, Relieving factors, Treatment
What is platypnea? difficulty breathing unless lying flat
What is subcutaneous emphysema? Air pockets under the skin
What is diaphragmatic excursion? The difference in posterior, dependent resonance between maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation
Know the heart sounds and what is anatomically happening. Lub- S1 First heart sound, closure of atrial ventricular valves Dub- S2 Second heart sound, closure of aortic and pulmonic valves
Know how to determine pack year history # of packs smoked per day multiplied (x) by # of years smoking
Normal heart rate for adult 60-100
Normal respiratory rate for adult? 12-20
Normal blood pressure for adult? 90-140 / 60-90
Identify the common respiratory assessment techniques. Inspection, Palpation, percussion, auscultation
Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) is used to indirectly measure what? Tidal volume (Respiratory rate)
What does color change in colorimetric CO2 sensor mean? CO2 is present
What is orthopnea? Difficultly breathing while lying down
Digital clubbing is indicative of what? Chronic Hypoxia, lung tumors, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrous, congenital heart disease, liver and gi disease, hereditary not COPD
What is the level of SpO2 typically associated with weaning of O2 therapy? 92% or higher on room air
1. What does PETCO2 mean? (characteristics) End-Tidal PCO2 Exhaled CO2 normal is 35-45
The chest wall overlying the heart is known as the ________________. precordium
Bronchial breath sounds Coarse, loud, heard over the trachea, at the manubrium, and the scapulae posteriorly
Brochovesicular breath sounds Normal breath sounds heard over the junction between the bronchi and alveoli. Occur anteriorly in the first and second interspaces between the ribs
Vesicular breath sounds High pitched, breezy. Heard over the lung periphery
Crackle breath sounds fine crackling, high pitched. Common finding with congestive heart failure
Rhonchi breath sounds coarse, low-pitched, may clear with cough. Caused by air passing through a partially obstructed airway due to secretions, spasms, or tumors
Wheezes breath sounds Whistling, high-pitched. Caused by air passing through narrowed airways. Asthma, congestive heart failure, and foreign body aspiration
Rub breath sounds Scratchy, high pitched. Caused by visceral and parietal pleurae inflammation. Metastatic tumors, infection in the pleural cavity, and residual blood after surgery.
Scoliosis Causes lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Causes forward curvature of the spine
Lordosis Causes backward curvature of the spine
Created by: K.Moskowitz
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