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Chemistry Chapter 6

Chemical Bonds

Chemical bonds form as a result of the attraction of what for what? Nuclei for electrons
What is a covalent bond? sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
What is an ionic bond electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
What defines if a bond is ionic or covalent? The electronegativity subtracted from the other electrons electronegativity. Higher then 1.7=ionic and less then 1.7= covalent
What electrons are available for forming a chemical bond? valence electrons
What can we say about the potential energy of a chemical compound, compared to the atoms from which it was made? Potential energy is usually lower then the energy of the reactants
What determines if a covalent compound is polar or non- polar? Polar- 0.3 to 1.7 Non- Polar- 0- 0.3
What is the octet rule? Chemical compouds form so that each atom by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.
What is a molecule? neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
What are bond length and bondy energy? Bond length- average distance between two atomsBond energy- energy used to seperate a chemical bond and make neutral isolated atoms
What type of bond is found in a molecule? colvalent
What is a diatomic molecule? Molecule containing only two atoms
What are the elements that always exist as a diatomic molecule? Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, flurine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
What is a double bond? a triple? double- sharing of two pairs of electrons b/w 2 atomstriple- sharing of 3 pairs of electrons b/w 2 atoms
How do the properties of ionic compounds compare to molecular compounds? Ionic- solid, brittle, high melting pointCovalent- gas, liquid, low melting point
What is lattice energy? energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
Whats the difference between an ionic formula and a molecular formula? Ionic- electrons gained or lost bond forms between opposite charged ionsCovalent- a pair of electrons is shared
What is a polyatomic ion? covalently bonded group of atoms with a charge
What is the primary characteristic of metallic bonding? sea of electrons
How does metallic bonding relate to the fact that a metal is malleable and can conduct electricity? Electrons are free to move, so metal can be shared without breaking any bonds. Electrons can travel freely through metal making a current.
What does VSEPR stand for? valence-shell, electrons-shared repulsion
VSEPR is based on what property of electrons? negative charges will reple
How do unshared pairs of electrons affect the shape of a molecule? Unshared electrons will repel other electrons the same as if they were shared electrons.
Based on VSEPR theory, whats the shape of an AB2 molecule? AB3? AB4? AB3E? AB2E2? AB2- linearAB3- trigonal planarAB4- tetrahedralAB3E- trigonal pyramidalAB2E2- Bent
What are the hybrid orbitals that are formed for an AB2 molecule? AB3? AB4? AB3E? AB2E2? AB2- sAB3- sp2AB4- sp3AB3E- sp3AB2E2- sp3
What does sp3 mean? a hybrid orbital made from one s orbital and 3 p orbitals
Which is stronger, intermolecular forces or chemical bonds? Chemical bonds
What causes a dipole in a chemical bond? one electron has a higher electronegativity than the other.
What is a dipole- dipole force? Forces of attraction b/w polar molecules.
How do you determine if a molecule is polar? If polarities of the dipoles in the individual bonds are asymmetrical and tend to point in one direction.
What is a hydrogen bond? a intermolecular force where a hydrogen atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electron negative atom in a molecule nearby.
Why is a hyrdrogen bond stronger than most other intermolecular forces? nearly full positive charge on the hydrogen atom is strongly attached to the negative charge of the unshared electron.
What are LLondon Dispersion forces? Weak intermolecularattractions because of the constant move of electrons andd creation of instaneous dipoles.
Created by: vdwilbur